Chapter 29 Neural Control

Central nervous system- made up of the brain, the spinal cord, and the optic nerves. The central nervous system controls thought processes, guides movement, and registers sensations throughout the body.

Peripheral nervous system is the nervous system besides the brain and spinal cord. It consists of sensory neurons running from stimulus receptors that inform the CNS of the stimuli and motor neurons running from the CNS to the muscles and glands - called effectors - that take action. It is subdivided to the sensory somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.

Somatic nervous system- the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. The SoNS consists of afferent nerves or sensory nerves, and efferent nerves or motor nerves

Autonomic nervous system- the part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed, such as breathing, the heartbeat, and digestive processes. Divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

Sympathetic nervous system- activates what is often referred to as the fight or flight response.

Parasympathetic nervous system- part of the involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase intestinal and glandular activity, and relax the sphincter muscles

Sensory neuron- a nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system

Interneuron definition- neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc

Motor neuron- a nerve cell forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland

Neuromuscular junction- synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This lesson describes the events of synaptic transmission leading to contraction of skeletal muscle.

Acetylcholine- organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of some animals and all humans as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are released by the adrenal medulla and nervous system. They are the flight/fight hormones that are released when the body is under large amounts of stress.

Synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a small gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White matter is made up of bundles of myelinated nerve cell projections, which connect various gray matter areas of the brain to each other, and carry nerve impulses between neurons.

Grey matter is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil, glial cells, synapses, and capillaries.

The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the cerebrum, made up of folded gray matter and playing an important role in consciousness.

Lobes of the brain:

The Limbic system is complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions and drives.

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