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俄羅斯政壇變革進行式 【中英對照翻譯】

來源:CBC WORLD 加拿大廣播公司世界新聞, January 15, 2020

新聞翻譯:TCC

導語: 上周三的俄羅斯政壇很不平靜。先是普京宣佈要進行憲法修正措施,隨後是總理梅德韋傑夫帶領的政府的全體辭職,最令人吃驚的普京接受了辭呈並很快任命了新總理。雖然普京强調:憲法改革必須進行全國性投票。但觀察家們認爲普京此舉是爲在2024年總統任期届滿后的掌權鋪路。

Putin announces constitutional reform in possible bid to hold on to power indefinitely

普京宣布憲法改革可能無限期延續其政權

Kremlin says tax service chief Mikhail Mishustin new PM after Medvedev steps down

克里姆林宮說,梅德韋傑夫卸任後,由稅務服務負責人米哈伊爾·米舒斯汀(Mikhail Mishustin)擔任新任總理

Vladimir Putin accepted the resignation of his prime minister Wednesday after proposing constitutional amendments that could herald his intention to carve out a position that would let him stay at Russia's helm after his presidency ends.

本週三,在普京(Vladimir Putin)提出了憲法修正案後,接受了總理的辭職。該修正案可能預示著他打算在其總統職位結束後,繼續執掌俄羅斯政權的意圖。

Medvedev at his confirmation hearing in the State Duma on 8 May 2018. 图片来源: duma.gov.ru [CC BY]

Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, who served as a placeholder president in 2008-2012 to allow Putin to observe term limits, said in televised comments he needed to resign in light of his mentor's proposed changes in government.

總理德米特里·梅德韋傑夫(Dmitry Medvedev)曾在2008年至2012年擔任“占位總統”,以允許普京遵守任期限制。他在電視講話中說,鑑於導師 (普京)提議的政府改革,他必須要辭職。

Putin thanked Medvedev for his work and appointed him as deputy head of the presidential Security Council.

普京梅德韋傑夫的工作表示感謝,並任命他為總統安全理事會副主席。

The Kremlin later said Putin had named tax service chief Mikhail Mishustin, 53, as the new prime minister. Tatiana Stanovaya, a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Moscow Center, said on social media that Mishustin has almost no political profile, isn't part of Putin's inner circle and appears to be "just a technocratic placeholder."

克里姆林宮後來表示,普京已任命現年53歲的稅務服務負責人Mikhail Mishustin為新任總理。卡內基莫斯科中心的非居民學者塔蒂亞娜·斯塔諾瓦亞(Tatiana Stanovaya)在社交媒體上表示,米舒斯汀(Mikhail Mishustin)幾乎沒有甚麼政治形象,也不是普京核心的人員,更像一個“只是技術官銜的佔位人”。

In his state of the nation address earlier in the day, Putin suggested amending the constitution to allow lawmakers to name prime ministers and cabinet members. The authority to make those appointments currently belongs to Russia's president.

普京在當天早些時候的國情咨文中建議修改憲法,以允許議員提名總理和內閣成員。目前,任命這些職位的權力屬於俄羅斯總統。

"It will increase the role of parliament and parliamentary parties, powers and independence of the prime minister and all cabinet members," Putin told an audience of top officials and lawmakers.

普京對高級官員和議員們說:“這將增加議會和議會黨團的作用,增強總理和所有內閣成員的權力和獨立性。”

At the same time, Putin argued Russia would not remain stable if it were governed under a parliamentary system. The president should retain the right to dismiss the prime minister and cabinet ministers, to name top defence and security officials, and be in charge of the Russian military and law enforcement agencies, he said.

同時普京卻又表示,如果俄羅斯只一味地實施議會制,俄羅斯將無法保持穩定。他說,總統仍應保留解散總理和內閣大臣,任命國防和安全高級官員的權利,並負責俄羅斯軍事和執法機構。

Putin emphasized that constitutional changes must be put to a nationwide vote.

普京強調,憲法改革必須進行全國性投票。

Putin's current term expires in 2024, and Russia's political elites have been abuzz with speculation about his future plans.

普京現任總統的任期到2024年屆滿,俄羅斯的政治精英們一直對他的未來計劃予以揣測。

Putin, 67, has remained at the helm for more than 20 years — longer than any other Russian or Soviet leader since Josef Stalin. He will have to step down after his term ends under the current law, which limits the president to two consecutive terms.

現年67歲的普京,掌舵了20多年,比斯大林(Josef Stalin)以來的任何其他俄羅斯或蘇聯領導人都要長。根據現行法律,他在任期屆滿後,必須辭職,該法律將總統的任期限制為連續兩次。

Political analyst Kirill Rogov said Putin's proposals indicate his intention to remain in charge while re-distributing powers between various branches of government.

政治分析家基里爾·羅戈夫(Kirill Rogov)說,普京的提議,表明了他打算繼續掌權,以及在政府各部門之間重新分配權力。

"Such a model resembling the Chinese one would allow Putin to stay at the helm indefinitely while encouraging rivalry between potential successors," Rogov said on Facebook.

羅戈夫在臉書上說:“這種類似於中國的模式,將允許普京無限期地掌舵,同時製造有希望繼其位者之間的競爭。”

Alexei Navalny, the most prominent Russian opposition leader, tweeted the president's speech signalled Putin's desire to continue calling the shots after his term ends.

俄羅斯最大的反對派領導人阿列克謝·納瓦尼(Alexei Navalny)在推特上說,普京的演說暗示著他希望在任期結束後繼續掌權。

"The only goal of Putin and his regime is to stay in charge for life, having the entire country as his personal asset and seizing its riches for himself and his friends," Navalny alleged.

納瓦爾尼說:“普京和他的政權的唯一目標就是長期執政掌權,把整個國家作為自己的個人財產,並為自己和他的朋友奪取財富。”

Putin served two presidential terms in 2000-2008 before shifting into the prime minister's seat for four years to observe the term limit. Medvedev kept his seat warm and then stepped down after just one term to allow his mentor to reclaim the top job in 2012. While in office, Medvedev raised the presidential term from four to six years.

普京在2000年至2008年曾兩次當選總統,然後連續四年擔任總理職位,以遵守任期限制。梅德韋傑夫為了幫忙普京保住他總統的職位,僅做了一個任期就辭職,以使他的導師(普京)能夠在2012年重新獲得總統的最高職位。梅德韋傑夫任職期間,將總統任期從四年延長到六年。

While Putin continued calling the shots during Medvedev's presidency, he wasn't quite happy with his performance. He was particularly critical of Medvedev's decision to give the green light to the Western air campaign over Libya in 2011 that led to the ouster and the killing of long-time dictator Moammar Gadhafi.

普京梅德韋傑夫總統任期內繼續掌政,但他對梅的表現並不滿意。他特別批評梅德韋傑夫(Medvedev)在2011年支持西方國家在利比亞上空進行空襲的決定。此舉導致長期獨裁的穆阿邁爾·卡扎菲(Moammar Gadhafi)被驅逐並被殺。

Medvedev's decision to step down after one term to let Putin return to the presidency also sparked massive protests in Moscow in 2011-2012 in a major challenge to the Kremlin.

梅德韋傑夫在一任任期結束後,決定讓普京重返總統職位的決定,也在2011-2012年引發了莫斯科的大規模抗議活動,對克里姆林宮構成了重大挑戰。

Observers speculated that Putin may stay in charge after 2024 by shifting into the prime minister's seat after increasing the powers of parliament and the cabinet and trimming presidential authority.

觀察家推測,普京在增加議會和內閣權力,削減總統權力後,轉任總理職位,在2024年後,可能會繼續掌權。

Political analyst Dmitry Oreshkin said Putin's speech made it clear he was pondering the move to premiership.

政治分析家德米特里·奧雷甚金(Dmitry Oreshkin)表示,普京的講話明確表明他正在考慮擔任總理的職務。

"Putin is advancing the idea of keeping his authority as a more powerful and influential prime minister while the presidency will become more decorative."

他說:“普京正在擴張他的權威,使他成為一名更強大和更有影響力的總理,而總統職位將只是一個裝飾性的角色。”

Other potential options include a merger with neighbouring Belarus that would create a new position of the head of a new unified state — a prospect rejected by Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko.

其他可能的考慮,包括與鄰國白俄羅斯的合併,這將建立一個新的合併國家元首的新職位,但這方面已被白俄羅斯總統亞歷山大·盧卡申科給拒絕了。

In his address, Putin said the constitution must also specify the authority of the State Council consisting of regional governors and top federal officials.

普京在演講中提到,憲法還必須明確規定國務院中的地方州長和聯邦高級官員的權限。

Some analysts have theorized that Putin may try to continue pulling the strings as head of the council after stepping down as president in 2024.

一些分析人士認為,普京在2024年卸任總統後可能會繼續擔任安理會主席。

Putin highlights Russia's weapons system

普京強調俄羅斯的武器系統

克里姆林宫 by Quistnix [CC BY-SA]

Putin emphasized the need to amend the constitution to give it a clear priority over international law.

普京強調有必要修改憲法,使其比國際法更具有明顯的優先地位。

"The requirements of international law and treaties, and decisions of international organs can only be valid on the territory of Russia as long as they don't restrict human rights and freedoms and don't contradict the constitution," he said.

他說:“國際法和條約的要求以及國際機構的決定,只有在不限制人權和自由,不違反憲法的前提下,才能在俄羅斯境內有效。”

He also said the constitution must be tweaked to say top government officials aren't allowed to have foreign citizenship or residence permits.

他還說,必須對憲法進行調整,規定不允許高級政府官員獲得外國公民身份或居留許可。

Putin focused his state of the nation address on the need to encourage population growth by offering additional subsidies to families that have children.

普京在其國情咨文中指出,急需通過提供家庭額外補貼來鼓勵人口增長。

The Russian leader said Russia would remain open for co-operation with all countries while maintaining a strong defence capability to fend off potential threats.

普京又說,俄羅斯將保持開放與盟國間的合作,同時保持其自身的強大防禦能力來抵禦潛在的威脅。

He added that new weapons systems would protect Russia's security "for decades ahead."

他補充說,新武器系統將“在未來幾十年內”保護俄羅斯的安全。

"For the first time in history, we aren't trying to catch up with anyone," Putin said. "On the contrary, other leading nations are yet to develop the weapons that Russia already has."

普京說:“這是有史以來第一次,我們不再試圖趕上任何人。” “相反,其他先進國家尚未開發俄羅斯已經擁有的武器。”

封面圖片來源:government.ru [CC BY-SA]

編輯:【喜馬拉雅戰鷹團】