俄羅斯政壇變革進行式 【中英對照翻譯】

來源:CBC WORLD 加拿大廣播公司世界新聞, January 15, 2020


導語: 上周三的俄羅斯政壇很不平靜。先是普京宣佈要進行憲法修正措施,隨後是總理梅德韋傑夫帶領的政府的全體辭職,最令人吃驚的普京接受了辭呈並很快任命了新總理。雖然普京强調:憲法改革必須進行全國性投票。但觀察家們認爲普京此舉是爲在2024年總統任期届滿后的掌權鋪路。

Putin announces constitutional reform in possible bid to hold on to power indefinitely


Kremlin says tax service chief Mikhail Mishustin new PM after Medvedev steps down

克里姆林宮說,梅德韋傑夫卸任後,由稅務服務負責人米哈伊爾·米舒斯汀(Mikhail Mishustin)擔任新任總理

Vladimir Putin accepted the resignation of his prime minister Wednesday after proposing constitutional amendments that could herald his intention to carve out a position that would let him stay at Russia's helm after his presidency ends.

本週三,在普京(Vladimir Putin)提出了憲法修正案後,接受了總理的辭職。該修正案可能預示著他打算在其總統職位結束後,繼續執掌俄羅斯政權的意圖。

Medvedev at his confirmation hearing in the State Duma on 8 May 2018. 图片来源: duma.gov.ru [CC BY]

Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, who served as a placeholder president in 2008-2012 to allow Putin to observe term limits, said in televised comments he needed to resign in light of his mentor's proposed changes in government.

總理德米特里·梅德韋傑夫(Dmitry Medvedev)曾在2008年至2012年擔任“占位總統”,以允許普京遵守任期限制。他在電視講話中說,鑑於導師 (普京)提議的政府改革,他必須要辭職。

Putin thanked Medvedev for his work and appointed him as deputy head of the presidential Security Council.


The Kremlin later said Putin had named tax service chief Mikhail Mishustin, 53, as the new prime minister. Tatiana Stanovaya, a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Moscow Center, said on social media that Mishustin has almost no political profile, isn't part of Putin's inner circle and appears to be "just a technocratic placeholder."

克里姆林宮後來表示,普京已任命現年53歲的稅務服務負責人Mikhail Mishustin為新任總理。卡內基莫斯科中心的非居民學者塔蒂亞娜·斯塔諾瓦亞(Tatiana Stanovaya)在社交媒體上表示,米舒斯汀(Mikhail Mishustin)幾乎沒有甚麼政治形象,也不是普京核心的人員,更像一個“只是技術官銜的佔位人”。

In his state of the nation address earlier in the day, Putin suggested amending the constitution to allow lawmakers to name prime ministers and cabinet members. The authority to make those appointments currently belongs to Russia's president.


"It will increase the role of parliament and parliamentary parties, powers and independence of the prime minister and all cabinet members," Putin told an audience of top officials and lawmakers.


At the same time, Putin argued Russia would not remain stable if it were governed under a parliamentary system. The president should retain the right to dismiss the prime minister and cabinet ministers, to name top defence and security officials, and be in charge of the Russian military and law enforcement agencies, he said.


Putin emphasized that constitutional changes must be put to a nationwide vote.


Putin's current term expires in 2024, and Russia's political elites have been abuzz with speculation about his future plans.


Putin, 67, has remained at the helm for more than 20 years — longer than any other Russian or Soviet leader since Josef Stalin. He will have to step down after his term ends under the current law, which limits the president to two consecutive terms.

現年67歲的普京,掌舵了20多年,比斯大林(Josef Stalin)以來的任何其他俄羅斯或蘇聯領導人都要長。根據現行法律,他在任期屆滿後,必須辭職,該法律將總統的任期限制為連續兩次。

Political analyst Kirill Rogov said Putin's proposals indicate his intention to remain in charge while re-distributing powers between various branches of government.

政治分析家基里爾·羅戈夫(Kirill Rogov)說,普京的提議,表明了他打算繼續掌權,以及在政府各部門之間重新分配權力。

"Such a model resembling the Chinese one would allow Putin to stay at the helm indefinitely while encouraging rivalry between potential successors," Rogov said on Facebook.


Alexei Navalny, the most prominent Russian opposition leader, tweeted the president's speech signalled Putin's desire to continue calling the shots after his term ends.

俄羅斯最大的反對派領導人阿列克謝·納瓦尼(Alexei Navalny)在推特上說,普京的演說暗示著他希望在任期結束後繼續掌權。

"The only goal of Putin and his regime is to stay in charge for life, having the entire country as his personal asset and seizing its riches for himself and his friends," Navalny alleged.


Putin served two presidential terms in 2000-2008 before shifting into the prime minister's seat for four years to observe the term limit. Medvedev kept his seat warm and then stepped down after just one term to allow his mentor to reclaim the top job in 2012. While in office, Medvedev raised the presidential term from four to six years.


While Putin continued calling the shots during Medvedev's presidency, he wasn't quite happy with his performance. He was particularly critical of Medvedev's decision to give the green light to the Western air campaign over Libya in 2011 that led to the ouster and the killing of long-time dictator Moammar Gadhafi.

普京梅德韋傑夫總統任期內繼續掌政,但他對梅的表現並不滿意。他特別批評梅德韋傑夫(Medvedev)在2011年支持西方國家在利比亞上空進行空襲的決定。此舉導致長期獨裁的穆阿邁爾·卡扎菲(Moammar Gadhafi)被驅逐並被殺。

Medvedev's decision to step down after one term to let Putin return to the presidency also sparked massive protests in Moscow in 2011-2012 in a major challenge to the Kremlin.


Observers speculated that Putin may stay in charge after 2024 by shifting into the prime minister's seat after increasing the powers of parliament and the cabinet and trimming presidential authority.


Political analyst Dmitry Oreshkin said Putin's speech made it clear he was pondering the move to premiership.

政治分析家德米特里·奧雷甚金(Dmitry Oreshkin)表示,普京的講話明確表明他正在考慮擔任總理的職務。

"Putin is advancing the idea of keeping his authority as a more powerful and influential prime minister while the presidency will become more decorative."


Other potential options include a merger with neighbouring Belarus that would create a new position of the head of a new unified state — a prospect rejected by Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko.


In his address, Putin said the constitution must also specify the authority of the State Council consisting of regional governors and top federal officials.


Some analysts have theorized that Putin may try to continue pulling the strings as head of the council after stepping down as president in 2024.


Putin highlights Russia's weapons system


克里姆林宫 by Quistnix [CC BY-SA]

Putin emphasized the need to amend the constitution to give it a clear priority over international law.


"The requirements of international law and treaties, and decisions of international organs can only be valid on the territory of Russia as long as they don't restrict human rights and freedoms and don't contradict the constitution," he said.


He also said the constitution must be tweaked to say top government officials aren't allowed to have foreign citizenship or residence permits.


Putin focused his state of the nation address on the need to encourage population growth by offering additional subsidies to families that have children.


The Russian leader said Russia would remain open for co-operation with all countries while maintaining a strong defence capability to fend off potential threats.


He added that new weapons systems would protect Russia's security "for decades ahead."


"For the first time in history, we aren't trying to catch up with anyone," Putin said. "On the contrary, other leading nations are yet to develop the weapons that Russia already has."

普京說:“這是有史以來第一次,我們不再試圖趕上任何人。” “相反,其他先進國家尚未開發俄羅斯已經擁有的武器。”

封面圖片來源:government.ru [CC BY-SA]