Physics; Electricity by: devshree and bilal

What is Physics (Electricity)?

Electricity is a form of energy. Electricity is formed by electric particles (like protons and electrons). It can either be electrostatic or electricity current. We use electricity in our daily lives. Electricity is used in many everyday things, such as the lights in our homes, mobile devices, our homes in general, batteries, and even the way our cities operate is based off electricity heavily.

It is an amazing natural resource of ours and we must conserve it for further technologies.

(image) An example of Electricity. 2 wires which are current electricity are connected. (http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/522699/EDU_Blog_Assets/Summer_Learning_Series/Electricity/187bzswqhpil0jpg.jpg)

Why do we study Physics?

Electricity is one of the beauties of our planet. It has evolved us in 1000s of ways and made our lives easier than let’s say, a hundred years ago. We can research, and develop an understanding for

Why we need Electricity in everyday life?

Electricity is a huge part of our lives. Many things, in fact nearly everything we do has something to with electricity one way or another. Examples include the water running in our homes, our heating, the technology we use in everyday life. There’s a vast amount of examples I can include, but theres a few.

(http://vectorschools.co.nz/electricity/why-do-we-need-electricity-)

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy sources are basically sources of energy which have have a more sustainable life. Renewable energy is energy that is generated from natural processes that are continuously replenished. Natural sources of renewable energy include solar, wind, water, biomass and geothermal. Some countries which are using renewable sources to produce energy include China, using 1,300 total renewable energy sources in their country. Our country, Canada, came overall 4th, with nearly 400 total renewable energy being used, such as hydro-power, wind power, biomass, solar power and geothermal as our renewable energy.

An example of a renewable energy source includes solar panels on the roof of a building. This gets the suns energy and converts it into electricity (http://nmgprod.s3.amazonaws.com/media/filer_public_thumbnails/filer_public/13/c7/13c7de5a-ca2b-44a1-b7e8-952a8c62d747/solar_panels_on_home.png__640x360_q85_crop_subsampling-2.jpg)
Renewable energy also involves technology that range from solar power, wind power, hydroelectricity/micro hydro, biomass and bio fuels for transportation.

Biomass, is a renewable organic matter, and can include biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, and alcohol fuels.

Bio diesel is fuel that is made from plant oils and that can be used in diesel engines. They are typically use renewable raw materials such as animal fats, soybean, rapeseed oils waste vegetable oils or micro algae oils.

Source: http://extension.psu.edu/natural-resources/energy/what

How does Renewable Energy work?

Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight, or solar energy, can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial uses.

The sun's heat also makes the the winds drive, whose energy, is captured with wind turbines. Then, the winds and the sun's heat cause water to evaporate. When this water vapor turns into rain or snow and flows downhill into rivers or streams, its energy can be captured using hydroelectric power.

Even biomass is made by the sun

Along with the rain and snow, sunlight causes plants to grow. The organic matter that makes up those plants is known as biomass. Biomass can be used to produce electricity, transportation fuels, or chemicals. The use of biomass for any of these purposes is called bioenergy.

Most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight, or solar energy, can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial uses.

The sun's heat also makes the the winds drive, whose energy, is captured with wind turbines. Then, the winds and the sun's heat cause water to evaporate. When this water vapor turns into rain or snow and flows downhill into rivers or streams, its energy can be captured using hydroelectric power.

Other Renewable Sources

Not all renewable energy resources come from the sun. Geothermal energy taps the Earth's internal heat for a variety of uses, including electric power production, and the heating and cooling of buildings. And the energy of the ocean's tides come from the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun upon the Earth.

Cost

A regular 5 kW system costs around $25,000 a panel to install onto our rooftops or in any other places. For an annual inspection on solar panels and roofs, it costs about $150. A 10 kW wind turbine cost around $50 000 - $80 000. This would be enough energy to power a single house. But installing a commercial wind turbine, used by companies, would cost approximately $3-4 million. A single geothermal power source can cost around $3400. Altough the costs are very high, it will be beneficial towards us in the future.

(Solar energy) https://www.solarpowerauthority.com/how-much-does-it-cost-to-install-solar-on-an-average-us-house/ (Wind turbines) http://www.windustry.org/how_much_do_wind_turbines_cost (Geothermal Source) http://geo-energy.org/geo_basics_plant_cost.aspx

Non-renewable Engery

Nonrenewable energy sources are energy sources that aren’t very sustainable and/or will run out when the time comes. Nonrenewable energy sources include natural resources such as coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear and uranium. Carbon is the main element in fossil fuels. Most fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable since they have a short period of time left. All Fossil Fuels are non-renewable and they were formed millions years ago from the remains of animals and dead plants. All fossil fuels formed in a similar way. Hundreds of millions of years ago, even before the dinosaurs, Earth had a different landscape. It was covered with wide, shallow seas and swampy forests.

How does it work?

Non-renewable energy is energy produced by burning fossil fuels such as coal. They are non-renewable because there are finite resources of fossil fuels on the planet. If they are continually used, one day they will run out.

Source: (http://www.solarschools.net/resources/stuff/non_renewable_energy.aspx)

Advantages and Disadvantages

Fossil fuels are a valuable source of energy. They are relatively inexpensive to extract. They can also be stored, piped, or shipped anywhere in the world.

However, burning fossil fuels is harmful for the environment. When coal and oil are burned, they release particles that can pollute the air, water, and land. Some of these particles are caught and set aside, but many of them are released into the air Like the gas in your car, the smoke comes out of the exhaust and causes pollution.

Burning fossil fuels also upsets Earth’s “carbon budget,” which balances the carbon in the ocean, earth, and air. When fossil fuels are LIT (combusted), they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a gas that keeps heat in Earth’s atmosphere, a process called the “greenhouse effect.” The greenhouse effect is necessary to life on Earth, but relies on a balanced carbon budget.

Fossil fuels are nonrenewable and will eventually run out because we are using them much faster than they can be restored within the earth. Burning fuels produce greenhouse gases including vast amounts of carbon dioxide that may be causing the phenomenon of global warming that the planet is currently experiencing.

Types Non renewable energy resources

Coal

Coal is a black or brownish rock. We burn coal to create energy. Coal is ranked (ranked means how good it is) depending on how much “carbonization” it has gone through. Carbonization is the process that ancient organisms undergo to become coal. About 3 meters (10 feet) of solid vegetation crushed together into .3 meter (1 foot) of coal (FACT from: National Geographic)!

Rank↓

Peat is the lowest rank of coal. It has gone through the least amount of carbonization. It is an important fuel in areas of the world including Scotland, Ireland, and Finland.

Anthracite is the highest rank of coal. Anthracite forms in regions of the world where there have been giant movements of the earth, such as the formation of mountain ranges. The Appalachian Mountains, in the eastern part of the United States, are rich in anthracite.

We mine coal out of the ground so we can burn it for energy. There are two ways that we can mine coal underground mining and surface mining.

Petroleum

Petroleum is a liquid fossil fuel. It is also called oil or crude oil. Petroleum is trapped by underground rock formations. In some places, oil bubbles right out of the ground. At the LaBrea Tar Pits, in Los Angeles, California, big pools of thick oil bubble up through the ground. Remains of animals that got trapped there thousands of years ago are still preserved in the tar!

Most of the world’s oil is still deep under the ground. We drill through the earth to access the oil. Some deposits are on land, and others are under the ocean floor. Once oil companies begin drilling with a “drill rig,” they can extract petroleum 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year. Many successful oil sites produce oil for about 30 years. Sometimes they can produce oil for much longer.

Natural Gas

Natural gas is another fossil fuel that is trapped underground in reservoirs. It is mostly made up of methane. The decomposing material in landfills also release methane, which smells like rotten eggs. There is so much natural gas underground that it is measured in million, billion, or trillion cubic meters.

To reach natural gas, some companies use a process called “hydraulic fracturing,”. Hydraulic means they use water, and fracturing means to “split apart.” The process uses high-pressure water to split apart the rocks underground. This releases the natural gas that is trapped in rock formations. If the rock is too hard, they can send acid down the well to dissolve the rock. They can also use tiny grains of glass or sand to prop open the rock and let the gas escape.

An example of a nonrenewable energy source are natural gases (http://cdn.thefiscaltimes.com/sites/default/files/styles/article_hero_image/public/articles/04262012_Natural_Gas_article.jpg?itok=w07ygzS8)

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Social Impact of Renewable and Non Renewable Energy

The use of renewable energy rather than fossil fuels can have major positive impacts on the health of the communities. The large amount of pollution can damage the health of our loved ones. Many people have died in the past years due to illnesses caused by our unhealthy atmosphere. But due to the recent developments on renewable technology There are many devices which run on renewable energy, mainly solar power. Instead of families paying hundreds of dollars every month for the electricity bill. Families can purchase devices that run on solar power. The solar city, has been planned to be built with solar panels attached to all buildings. This means that all the energy needed for the buildings will come from the energy within the solar panels. The energy from the panels will power appliances inside homes, from refrigerators to light bulbs. This will help families feel less stressed about electricity bills. Although people may feel worried that if the sun doesn't come out for a long time, then there will be no power within the house. But this is in fact wrong, because the days that the sun is shining, the solar panels will collect the sun's rays and store the energy within itself.

http://www.ucsusa.org/clean-energy/renewable-energy/public-benefits-of-renewable-power#.WNmeCzvyvb0

Non-renewable energy is used in our everyday lives. The most common types are oil, gas and coal. Humans have been using non-renewable energy for almost everything. To heat up food, for our vehicles to keep running, etc.

Tesla And non-renewable and renewable Social Impact

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Environment Impact of Renewable and Non Renewable energy

Solar energy brings a lot of good when it comes to the environment. One benefit mentioned earlier is using solar energy will reduce air pollution. The reason why solar energy will reduce air pollution is because we will be getting our energy from the sun, and if we stop burning fossil fuels, less pollution will be released in the air, therefore creating a cleaner environment. Switching to solar energy will also be reducing the water pollution. Power generators and factories need large amounts of water to operate. The water will be reused and polluted as well. However, with solar energy, we wouldn’t need any water to generate electricity. We only need the sun and solar panels. We also wouldn’t have to rely on natural resources that are non renewable. So we have an unlimited supply of energy coming in from the sun. So in conclusion, solar energy is a perfect solution for energy production. It will save the environment, save our money and it will help the economy!

(http://www.svssolutions.com/blog/three-environmental-benefits-solar-energy)

The gas from factories, the pollution from cars, digging up the Earth just for oil, clawing at the ground to mine for coals. These all harm our environment, each time we use fossil fuels we add more damage to nature. The process of burning fossil fuels will cause a lot of harm towards the environment. A well known issue that will be caused is air pollution. Carbon dioxide emissions are released into the air, which is the reason behind climate change, which causes a chain of other problems involved with the issue. The issues that come with climate change include the melting of the polar ice caps, causing a rise in the global sea level, which will increase the rise of sea level and cause lots of floods and other natural disasters. This is not good cause one problem will cause many problems. If habitats are not clean or healthy, animals will become affected and can eventually die. To wrap it up, non renewable are not the best option to rely on energy for since it is nonrenewable, causes air pollution, is very expensive and once it runs out, we are in lots of crisis.

(http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/Disadvantages_FossilFuels.php)

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Economical Impact of Renewable and Non renewable energy

Renewable resources have grown and are now sold throughout the world. Although renewable resources are expensive, it is a much better alternative towards the sustainability of our planet. We will be able to save more money since it is cheaper to produce solar energy than purchasing crude oil. Plus, the cost of burning fossil fuels costs a lot more than the production of solar energy, therefore making it the obvious choice. By the production of renewable resources, it causes a "ripple" effect on the economy. More jobs will become available for people to work in, and with more people working means more production and more sales. Companies will trade with other businesses within the nation and with other countries. This ends in total economic growth. By buying solar panels, we can even save our own money because families won't have to worry about electricity bills.

(http://peopleof.oureverydaylife.com/social-impacts-solar-energy-8517.html)

Burning fossil fuels is a very expensive thing to do. It is estimated that it costs almost $120 billion every year to burn these fossil fuels. This can be difficult for survival in countries with large amounts of poverty which are not able to afford fossil fuels and other types of gasses. Plus, these gasses are NOT renewable, therefore meaning it will die out in the near future, leaving the countries in lots of crisis and our world in crisis as well. Just imagine, stocks will be dropping, jobs will get lost, hundreds of millions of people will die due to lack of natural resources. Our world will be in lots of problems, so we should learn how to conserve our non renewable sources FAST and to transition into completely relying on renewable sources.

(http://www.treehugger.com/energy-policy/true-cost-fossil-fuels.html)

Tesla and Ford Impact on Econamy

Tesla makes a big impact when it comes to Renewable energy. With its car running on nothing but electricity rather then Oil or petroleum. Ford Hybrid SE on the other hand has both options. So you have both advantages.

Say you have no power source for charging the Tesla, like in some countries there's power shortage for example; Pakistan, India. But If you have a Ford you have the option of using Petroleum or electricity to run the car. Having 2 options has a big impact on the economy because most of the time Petrol is cheaper in most countries like Venezuela and Kuwait where the prices go as low as $0.02 per Gallon. (http://oilprice.com/Energy/Oil-Prices/Top-10-Countries-With-The-Cheapest-And-Most-Expensive-Gas.html).

But say if you live in Canada and you install Solar Panels on your house and generate electricity to charge the Tesla, it is MUCH cheaper then paying $1.12 at Petra Canada for gas! The Ford still has the advantage of having both options although the fords battery doesn't last as long as the Tesla's.

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How matter and energy interact and are transferred through systems

Definition of a Conductor: A conductor is a material that universally allows the flow of electrons in any place possible. It can be static charges on 2 different objects and even in an electrical circuit.

Definition of an Insulator: An Insulator is a material that universally restricts the flow of electrons and other particles in any place possible.

A way that electricity is transferred is through friction. When two surfaces are rubbed against each other, the result is static electricity. When objects are charged by friction, one material has more stronger attraction to electrons (which are negatively charged) than the other does. Which means that the conductor material of the two will have all the electrons, while the other material will have the protons. Friction is one type of way that energy can be transferred. Another way is electric discharge. This is when electricity is transferred through an electric field.

Electrostatics

Insulators - They do not allow electrons to pass through. They keep electrons inside themselves, instead of letting them flow through into the material against it. Wood, plastic, and glass are good examples of some insulators

Conductors - They are materials that freely let electrons pass through, from one surface into another. Some examples of conductors are silver, copper, steel, brass. Metals are very good conductors.

Pollution Control

The solar city is designed to help the environment get healthier. An idea to help the environment become cleaner is to make a pollution control device. The pollution made from factories can be very dangerous. The gas contains smoke particles which have elctrons and protons. When gas flows out of factory’s chimneys, it spreads into the atmosphere creating many health issues towards the society, and the atmosphere. Therefore, a solution that has been created is to place pollution controlling devices inside of factory chimneys. These devices will contain a grid which collects the electron molecules from the gas. After that, there is a plate located on the sides of the chimney, which attracts all the protons from the gas. The process is that the gas is going to flow into the chimney, the plate will attract the electrons from the smoke particles, then the plates on the sides will continue to attract the protons. And out flows the new smoke-less gas.

Table of Various Materials and its electrical conductivity

Material Name

Conductivity

Silver (metal) - 105%

Copper(metal) - 100%

Steel - 3-15%

Gold - 70%

Aluminum -61%

Nickel - 22%

Zinc -27%

Brass -28%

Iron -17%

Tin - 15%

Phosphor bronze - 15%

Lead - 7%

Nickel Aluminum Bronze - 7%

Information from (https://www.bluesea.com/resources/108/Electrical_Conductivity_of_Materials)

A Plan to Reduce Electrical

A problem with electricity is sometimes we can use too much electricity when it is not needed. In this segment, I will be explaining ways on how we can reduce our own personal electricity consumption, so we can conserve electricity, save money on our electricity bills and make a better future for our electricity.

Step by step process:

Try to use less electricity at home, start to switch the lights off more frequently. Doing this will reduce your electrical consumption by a huge margin since our electrical appliance keeps on running in the background. If we tried unplugging them when inactive, we would save some electricity. (Examples include TVs, Computers, gaming consoles, lights etc.)

When using a product, purchase a power strip so that more than one electronic can be powered and also using less electrical consumption.

Use LED lights instead of the traditional light bulb. LED lights will use a lot less energy (up to 85%) and will also make the lighting in your home a lot better.

Power your computer's completely off or you can set it in sleep mode. This will use a lot energy than leaving a computer fully on and function.

Use household appliances when needed. Look for ENERGYStar labels on appliances to ensure they are energy efficient. Use cold water more for laundry since you are able to save more money in the end, rather than hot water. Use the microwave instead of the oven to reheat smaller items.

Set your thermostat to the appropriate level of the temperature outside. Also leave the blinds open during the winter time to bring more heat inside the house. The sun’s heat will penetrate the windows and the natural heat will come in.

(http://www.wikihow.com/Reduce-Your-Energy-Consumption)

The Role of ENERGYStar and your electricity usage

ENERGY Star is a government approved electrical efficiency label program which identifies if products are energy efficient. The program started in 1992, and has helped millions of people reduce their energy usage. The labelling is active in companies, households and handheld products. Buying products verified by ENERGY Star will help you take a step closer towards conserving energy and will save the future of electricity. The role of this is to use electricity more efficiently and to reduce the electricity bill monthly. It will also reduce gas emissions and other pollutants as well. A product earns the ENERGY Star logo by being identified as an electric conserving. It can still provide the same features as a product without the label, just using a LOT less electricity.

(http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/definition/Energy-Star)

(https://www.energystar.gov/products/how-product-earns-energy-star-label)

Static Electricty

Static electricity is the action of rubbing two surfaces against each other. Static electricity is created through rubbing of two materials which have both protons and neutrons. When these two materials rub against each other, it creates friction. Within the two materials, one material will have a stronger attraction towards electrons. This leaves one material filled with all the electrons, while the other is filled with protons. Afterwards if you touch a material with neutrons, then there will be a slight shock. This is called a static discharge. Which is when there is a static shock created by the electrons flowing into a conductor filled with neutrons. A famous example of static electricity is when you rub two feet with socks on top of a rug, then you touch a conductor such as metal. If you do this correctly you will feel a slight shock from the metal and your fingertips.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity)

https://www.slideshare.net/jrt004/transferring-charge

The infamous CN tower being struck by lighting, which is an example of static electricity rubbing on a surface. (http://www.livescience.com/images/i/000/077/461/original/lightning-cntower.jpg?interpolation=lanczos-none&fit=around%7C300:200&crop=300:200;*,*)

In the solar city, while everything is powered by renewable energy, that isn't the only thing that can create energy. An idea that might be used, is to have electric bikes at each household. These bikes will be attached with a cloth on both wheels, and will be connected to a generator that creates energy. The purpose of these bikes is that when you ride them, the static created from the friction between the wheel and the cloth will be turned into energy. There are small scale testings that are being done. The small scale testings are using the electric bikes to power on light bulbs. And they have been working successfully.

Why do we use static electricity?

We use static electricity in our everyday lives in so many different ways. Some ways we use static electricity include using it in paint sprayers, printers and we also use static electricity in air filters as well. Static electricity is formed through rubbing 2 materials together. It is either positive or negative electrons that creates the static charge.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity#Applications_of_static_electricity)

Transfer of Static Electricity

Friction: We have 2 different things. One is a conductor and one was the insulator. The insulator of electricity was the balloon, and the conductor was the light bulb. When I rubbed the balloon on my head, the surface of the balloon had a negative static charge on it. The action of me rubbing my head against the balloon was called Friction. The electrons were on the surface of the balloon via friction.

Contact: After the balloon was statically charged via friction, we have had the lightbulb, which is a conductor of electricity. When the electrons statically charged on the balloon, the lightbulb has an equal amount of protons on the surface. When the electrons on the surface of the balloon came in contact with the protons on the surface of the light bulb, both of the particles exchange with each other, causing a glow up on the light bulb.

Induction: When it comes to induction, when the balloon was hovered over the light bulb, the exchange of particles such as protons and electrons cause a light-up reaction onto the conductor, the light bulb. The induction is when they exchange particles between a conductor and an insulator of electricity.

How has static electricity been used in different devices?

Car Painting:

A diagram explaining how a paint gun effect would work on a car (http://image.slidesharecdn.com/p4p5p6resource-120102071350-phpapp01/95/p4-p5-p6-resource-7-728.jpg?cb=1325489188)

The way painting works on cars is another example of static electricity. Before the actual paint job, the car is first prepared with a positive electric charge in a special room. Then, the paint gun is charged with a negative energy charge, and then applied onto the car with design of choice. It is just like the other examples on this list. When the coloured negative charged particles are sprayed onto the positive charged energy, the colour will be sprayed over the vehicle. The particles are attracted with each other, causing a very effective way of the paint staying onto the car. Once dried up, it will stay well since the number of positive and negative charged particles are evenly distributed.

(http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/static_uses.htm#.WDt15BorJdh)

How to prevent static electricity in homes

What we can do to prevent static electricity is we can buy something called a humidifier. Reasons why static electricity can be a problem is because in the winter, the air will be very dry and there will be a lot of electric shocks in homes, especially when touching doorknobs. This can be a problem for many. What we can do to reduce the chances of this is called a humidifier. The humidifier will put some water particles into the air to moisten the air and lessen the chances of static charges.

An example of a humidifier releasing mist into the air for the reduction of static electricity (http://www.humidifiers.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Air-O-Swiss-7135-humidifier.jpg)

Current Electricity

Current Electricity flows in circuits. A circuit is a closed loop of wires, which lets electricity flow through. We have simple circuits, parallel circuits and series circuit. Circuit electricity needs an energy source to flow through. You would need an energy supply in order to make current electricity work. Circuits are designed to transfer energy from the energy source to the area which requires the power. Electrical components include wires, ammeter, batteries, fuse, connected wires, a bulb, a switch, a voltmeter and a resistor. The wire allows the electrons to flow in the circuit. The power from the energy source will flow to the load, causing it to have power. A perfect example of this would include a light bulb. We can power the light bulb (load) using electrical circuits. We have a switch, the negative energies get transferred to the batteries, and the batteries release positive electrons to the load, and there we can power the light bulb.

A diagram of an electrical circuits and a light bulb. (http://www.rkm.com.au/ANIMATIONS/animation-graphics/circuit-diagram.jpg)

Current (I) is measured in Amps (A), ∆t is the time (s), ∆Q is the charge of coulombs (a coulomb is a SI unit of electric charge, used when measuring the rate of a current)

The current is the rate of charge. 1 A means that 1 coulomb of charge flows through a specific point in a circuit every second. In a circuit, the current can be measured by an ammeter.

Potential difference (V) is measured in Volts (V), Q is the charge of coulombs, W is the energy transferred in joules (SI unit of energy, that is the same as the force of the work done)

1 V is when 1 joule of energy is being worked on per every coulomb. In a circuit, the potential difference

Resistance (R), V is the potential difference (V), I represents the current (Amps)

Resistance is measured in ohms. Ohms is the resistance stopping the electric current between two conductors. Resistance is the ratio of potential difference between the current and the material surrounding it.

Series and Parallel Circuits

Series circuits contain only one path for the electric currents to flow through. While parallel circuits include various wires for the electric current to flow through.

Current electricity is found everywhere in society. Everything that uses energy to operate has a circuit placed inside of it. It will also be used within the Solar City. Even though we are not using electricity as energy to power our homes. We will still be using the circuit designs. We need to wire the panels to the building, therefore transferring the energy stored in the panels to the rest of the house, office building, etc. We would need to use both series and parallel circuits in this plan. Series circuits will be used when the energy needs to go to only one specific area. Such as the air conditioning or heating generator. The parallel circuits will be used when we need to power multiple things at once, such as the lights in a building. The lights cannot be connected with a series circuit because if something were to malfunction with even one wire, then the whole system would shut down. When using a parallel circuit, if one wire were to break down, then only the connecting bulb will shut down with it.

Solving Simple Problems

Series Circuit

V=IR

Voltage (V) = Current (I) times Electrical Resistance ®

Let’s set an example as the Current being 3.5 amps, and the total resistance being 1.4 OHMS

V=I/R

V=3.5/1.4

V=2.5v

Let’s have another example with 2 different loads, and we have to find the voltage and find how much voltage each load is getting. Let’s set the current as 4 amps, and the resistance as 2.5 OHMS. Solve

V=I/R

V=4/2.5

V=1.6v

1.6 volts in the whole circuit

We have 2 different loads

To find the voltage in each load, get the total voltage and divide by the # of loads

1.6v/2

0.8v

Therefore, each lightbulb will receive 0.8 volts.

Parallel Circuit

Our voltage will be the same across all parallel circuits, but we would have to calculate the electrical resistance and the current in a parallel circuit. Let's say the Voltage of a parallel circuit is around 24 and there are 4 different light bulbs. The first 2 resistor loads are 8, the second pair is both 4. We want to find out the electrical resistance of this parallel circuit. Our equation of this would be 1/RT=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3 so on so fourth. There are 4 resistors in our circuit, first 2 8, second 2 4.

1/RT=⅛+⅛+¼+¼

Convert into decimals and add everything up.

1/RT=0.125+0.125+.25+.25

1/RT=1

Divide both sides by 1

RT=1

Therefore, our total resistance in this parallel circuit equals to 1 OHMS.

Resistance Total= 1 OHMS

In a parallel circuit, the brightness of each light bulb will remain the same as the voltage flowing will stay the same. However, the flow of current will change in a parallel circuit. Therefore, the brightness in the lights will remain the same, since the voltage is at level. - My Conclusion in the Lab I did.

https://docs.google.com/a/pdsb.net/document/d/1w9Wjx3W68le5D96lir6NcJeG_ROD21IqoOLfCcQQfxo/edit?usp=sharing

Energy Use

Multiply the watts in an electrical device by the number of hours you use that specific device in a day. The result you get is the number of watt hours consumed a day. We then have to convert the number of watts, to kilowatts hours. To do this, we have to divide the watts by 1000. Then you have to figure out how much kilowatt hours the device uses in a month. Take the watts, and multiply it by the number of days in a month. You then have to check how much you pay for each kilowatt hour on your electricity bill. Take the number of kWh you pay each month and multiply it by the kWh calculated in step 3.

200 watt computer x 4 hours a day = 800 watt-hours per day

800 watt-hours / 1000 = 0.8 kWh per day

800 watt-hours x 30 days = 24 kWh per month

$0.15 per kWh x 24 kWh per month = $3.6 per month

Energy Consumption of various electrical appliances

Appliance Kilowatts used hourly

Computer (monitor and desktop) = 20kWh

Clothes washer and dryer = 5kWh

Air Cleaner = 16kWh

Food fridge and freezer = 21kWh

Dishwasher = 13kWh

Microwave = 5kWh

Stove = 500kWh

Fridge = 75kWh

Waterbed Heater = 75kWh

Television = 20kWh

Water Heater (fam. Up to 6) = 700kWh

Information borrowed from local energy provider http://www.torontohydro.com/sites/electricsystem/residential/yourbilloverview/Pages/ApplianceChart.aspx

Efficiency of an energy converter

Example 1: A light bulb only has an electrical efficiency of 25%. If we converted the energy, what would the new efficiency be?

25% Efficiency in Light Bulb 0.75, Joules used hourly if bulb is 100.0 watts.

Let P rep. Percent Efficiency

Let E rep. Efficiency

Let T rep. Total Loads

P=E/Tx100%

E=P

=100(1)

E=100J

Eff=Eout/Ein

0.75=Eout/100

Eout=75J

AC / DC

Elements for DC Current:

Produced from power sources such as batteries, power supplies and other generations of electricity

Only uses one power source.

Direct Current uses a constant of voltage, current or resistors.

DC= Direct Current, which means the electrical current will only flow in one direction.

Elements for AC Current:

AC= Alternating Current, which means the flow of electricity is frequently reversed. Mainly used in power supplies.

Voltage can be increased/decreased with something called a transformer.

The electricity is used in households and residences

Similarities: Both currents can provide electricity to a power source.

Differences:

- DC current cannot provide energy to long distances, as AC Current can provide it to longer distances for more time and more energy.

- DC Current obtains power from sources such as batteries or a cell. AC Current obtains power from AC Generators.

- DC Current moves forward in a single directions. AC Current moves in a reversed direction and it frequently switches.

(http://www.diffen.com/difference/Alternating_Current_vs_Direct_Current)

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternating_current)

(A current is measured by amps ), an Ammeter is used to measure the amps in a circuit.

( Potential difference is measured by volts ), a voltmeter can only measure the volts within a circuit.

A multimeter is a device that measure more than two electrical values. Most of the times, a multimeter can measure voltage, amperage and ohms. Meters nowadays are available with a rotatable, switch. In the past, there was only one type of meter for one electric unit. Meters have developed to make it easier for the users.

https://www.theautomationstore.com/using-a-multimeter-voltmeter-ammeter-and-an-ohmmeter/

Tesla

Tesla Model 3 combines real world range, performance, safety and spaciousness into a premium sedan that only Tesla can build. Our most affordable car yet, Model 3 achieves 345 km of range per charge while starting at only 35,000 USD before incentives. Model 3 is designed to attain the highest safety ratings in every category.

345 km Range per charge Under 6 seconds Zero to 100 km/h

Tesla doesn't use non-renewable energy at all. This has its side effects and advantages, but mostly advantages.

Tesla is using all renewable energy to run their cars because it's better for the environment and non renewable is running out.

Ford on the other hand the car I'm comparing is fully hybrid and runs on Fuel which is petrol. It is good to have both options in a car and this is actually very good.

Ford

The Ford model Hybrid SE I that i'm compering with Tesla's model is is very good comparison.

2.0L iVCT Atkinson-cycle I-4 Engine and Electric Motor eCVT automatic transmission Lithium-Ion Battery Anti-lock braking system (ABS) Regenerative Braking Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS)

Credits:

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