Industrial Revolution Review Makina Toler

The Start of the Industrial Revolution

These early revolutions first started in Britain. Changes in agriculture such as the methods of farming and things like that allowed for an agricultural revolution. Many early factory owners during the Industrial Revolution were entrepreneurs or merchants who made decent profit from the 18th century cottage industry, but because of the increase in population, it allowed for more factories to be built which caused an increase in Britain industry because there was more labor available. This allowed for an industrial revolution.

Fun Fact: The main thing that happened during the Industrial Revolution was that machines were developed that could perform many of the jobs and tasks that had previously been done by people (or in some cases, animals, such as horses).

The Development of Industrialization

There were many things that helped develop industrialization throughout Britain. Most of these things not only helped with the improvement of machines and factories, but also with trade and the spread of the idea of industrialization.

  • The need for supplies was not a problem in Britain, there was more than enough material such as coal and iron ore which were needed in manufacturing process.
  • Britain had no internal custom barriers, so they were not hindered to domestic trade, so the abundance in rivers helped increase investments in new roads, bridges, and canals which linked major industrial centers of the North, Midlands, London, and the Atlantic.
  • Government also impacted the build up of industrialization because Parliament passed laws that protected private property and it gave enterprise an amazing amount of freedom which put fewer restrictions on private business owners.
  • Last but certainly not least, markets. The supply of markets made it possible for British industries to have a ready outlet for their manufactured goods. This helped increase British exports to other major industrial centers like those connected by the roads, bridges, and canals.

Fun Fact: Children were often used for their cheap labor. They started working at very young ages. Also, girls were a cheaper labor force because they couldn't do more of the physical jobs and activities that boys could, especially teenagers.

Industries and Inventions

There were many developments that helped improve many things such as transportation, trade, and the efficient manufacturing of clothing.

  • The cotton industries produced cotton goods at a low price by using the traditional methods of the cottage industry
  • The flying shuttle, an invention by John Kay, was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution. This invention allowed weavers to double their output. Though products were being made efficiently, it caused a shortage in yarn.
  • The spinning jenny, invented by James Hargreaves, solved the yarn shortage problem. This invention allowed for people to produce yarn in greater quantity.
  • The ideas of Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton of the water frame and the mule also helped increase production of yarn even more.
  • Power looms, invented by Edmund Cartwright but later improved, made weaving clothing more efficient.
  • The steam engine, invented by James Watt, revolutionized production of cotton goods and allowed factory systems to spread to other areas of production.
  • Iron industries found new ways of smelting iron ore to produce cast iron. Also, Henry Cort developed a new system called puddling which produced iron at a high quality. Iron industries responded to the demand for new machines because the high quality wrought iron produced by the Cort process made it the most widely used metal until the 1860s when a cheaper steel was produced.
  • Improvements in transportation such as steam powered locomotives and railroads increased the ability to transport as well as improving British exports.

Fun Fact: The Industrial Revolution generally brought about much better economic conditions for most people, but the poor and working classes often suffered with grim jobs and terrible living conditions. Dissatisfaction and poverty sometimes resulted in social breakdown, protests, and rioting.

Impacts of the Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution changed the 19th century majorly. It impacted people socially, economically, and politically.

  • The increase in production allowed for more British exports, which also helped Britain gain foreign relations due to increase in trade.
  • With the increase in trade it allowed many private business owners earn a great amount of profit.
  • The industrial revolution led Western civilization into a machine-dependent modern world.
  • Industrialization spread to continental countries of Europe and the United States, allowing ideas for inventions, advancements in machines, and improvements on existing inventions to be made.

Fun Fact: Before the Industrial Revolution, societies were largely rural and people made things at home. Industrialization meant that more and more people lived in cities, and goods were mass produced in purpose-built factories.

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Makina Toler
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