Sous vide is an alternative way of preparing food. It can be used for very many ingredients, but the most common ingredient is meat. Instead of grilling the meat, modernist chefs will cook the meat at a low temperature underwater for hours, or even days.
This evenly distributes the heat energy throughout the whole ingredient, as opposed to exerting all energy to the outside of the meat.
Spherification or Caviar
Spherification is a technique used in modernist cooking to give a whole new flavor and texture profile to cuisine. The technique uses alginate, a molecule found in seaweed. It works similarly to thickening agents, but with one main difference: when it interacts with ions, it turns into a any liquid into a gel.
Culinary foams are used in Molecular Gastronomy mainly as a replacement for sauces, as they are lighter and easier to digest than actual sauce. They are made by whipping a liquid and using a stabilizer. Gelatin, lecithin, and agar are the most popular substances
Gelatin is an animal byproduct often used in gummies and jello
Lecithin is a substance found in soy, and is ideal for things like citrus, coffee, and berries, as lecithin responds very well to acidic fluids.
Agar, much like alginate, is found in water flora. It's very popular ingredient for Japanese desserts, but works exceptionally well for foams and jellies