Mid-Semester Project There are many others with the same exact title, but this one is mine. Pretend this subtitle is original.
FIGURE AND GROUND
Figure and ground is the use of positive and negative space. Through the most simple use of white and black we can use space very neatly in order to create recognizable images. A common gimmick with positive and negative space is creating multiple recognizable sights with the very minimalist use of color. The essential idea behind Figure and Ground is the emphasis on use of space and placement in images, and how those can make things stick out or fade into the backdrop.
FRAME AND SURFACE
How something is framed is a very vital factor in any piece of work--even pieces by artists that put very little attention in the framing are unknowingly heavily influenced by frame. Put simply, frame is how we position things in an image and how we crop it. The way in which we crop an image and decide on where things are placed can evoke highly particular feelings and if you change anything ever so slightly it could completely change the image and the message the audience will receive. A common method of how to properly crop an image is to go off of the Rule of Thirds or the Fibonacci Spiral. The latter is a simple way of being able to find out where things should be placed in an image in order to make it appear attractive.
The form and placement of this image is real interesting. It appears really appealing to the eye because of how it perfectly aligns with the Fibonacci Spiral. Our eyes are much more likely to go toward where the girl is holding up the object she is licking because of how it is framed. If we zoomed out and she appeared much smaller, say, near the very bottom-left corner of the image with the rest of it being empty our eyes would go directly to her. We could then re-align the spiral perfectly with her and it would still apply.
Meanwhile, surface is essentially what an artist draws on. However, the use of certain canvases can thankfully be visually emulated in digital art through the use of various techniques.
MARK AND LINE
The concept of mark and line is the placement of various lines and markings in art. While lines are typically used solely for outlines, they can also be used for methods such as hatching which can be used for shading or texturing. The thickness, closeness, and length of varying lines can create varying effects that add a lot to and image.
Related to hatching is stippling. A similar yet separate concept. With stippling, one creates dotted marks rather than draws lines. Stippling works similar to hatching, with each dot's size, darkness, and closeness all tying together to create an effect.
No, not like TRON. Though that is probably where inspiration for the name came from.
The grid is a metric concept where evenly placed and spaced squares are hung over an image. These squares are commonly referred to as "pixels". The grid is very important in things such as Pixel Art which use each and every single square to make a specific image. The grid is also commonly used to help even out and place things in an image through measuring.
Pattern is the idea of repetition in art. When we see something that repeats consistently in an image, it eases our eyes and creates a sense of continuity. Patterns can make for very easing, pleasing images or for some really nice tiled backgrounds but using a pattern can also help show contrast in a piece of an image where things are drawn or placed to leap out of a pattern. For instance, showing a red version of something that is in a pattern of blue things will create a neat contrast and direct viewer's attention to what sticks out. Some images utilize multiple patterns in order to categorize, shade, or add texture to things.
Texture is the feel of something. However something is shaped, made, etc. is what gives it texture. Despite being something you have to feel, texture is not exclusive to real life. Texture can be heavily emulated through use of techniques such as shading, marking, and so forth. Even when one takes a picture of something texture can be recognized while examining the photo. Take this for example:
Can't you just look at this photograph of cotton candy and imagine how fluffy and soft it must feel? Texture can bring out very intense emotions in art, making it a useful tool. Being able to see an image is one thing, but being able to feel one is an experience.
TRANSPARENCY AND OPACITY
Transparency is the inability to see an object while opacity is the ability to see it. An image can utilize transparency for ghostly effects by making something appear supernatural via its hard to see nature. Moreover, it can also be used for interesting layering and unique gimmicky effects, such as a recent trend on social media sites to create semi-transparent images that you can repost to see colored by your page's background. Opacity is for more visible images. If something is opaque, that means it is not transparent and you cannot see through it. Most features in images are opaque and for images with transparency the opaque objects are often used for contrast or unique effects.