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2018-2019 Newsletter Department of History CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON

News from the Chair, Dr. Jasamin Rostam-Kolayi:

Welcome to the History Department’s inaugural online newsletter!

We have much to be thankful for this spring. Among our 400 History majors--an upswing from the past few years--we are graduating 140 students with Bachelor’s degrees. Our Master’s in History Program is also prospering with a hundred or more graduate students. And applications for the Fall semester keep coming in! We continue to support our students with History scholarships and fellowships, expanding the number of awards we granted this year with the addition of the Black Family Fellowship, which has funded student research and travel to archives, conferences, and study abroad. History undergrad Jacob Vela, whose story is featured below, could not have conducted archival-based research at Arizona State and Yale University without such generous support. Our faculty teach, mentor, publish, and provide students hands-on experiences that make history relevant and meaningful, as detailed in the feature below on the Cal State D.C. Scholars Program led by Dr. Volker Janssen and the “Be a Lincoln!” event organized by Dr. Aitana Guia’s Spanish Civil War class. And some of us, like Dr. Ben Cawthra, even podcast! Our alumni continue to inspire as they embark on careers in law, education, and public policy. As Commencement 2019 approaches, we celebrate another year of extraordinary achievements in the History Department.

Selection of Recent Faculty Publications:

  • Kate Burlingham, “Praying for Justice: The World Council of Churches and the Program to Combat Racism” Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, Winter 2019, pp 1- 31.
  • Lisa Tran, “From Toleration to Prosecution: Concubinage and the Law in China.” In Julia Moses, ed., Marriage, Law and Modernity: Global Histories. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018, pp. 54-70.
  • Stephen Neufeld, “Mexico's First Decades of Independence,” coauthored with Christon Archer. In The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Ed. William Beezley. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.
  • Benjamin Cawthra, “Yesternow: Jack Johnson, Documentary Film, and the Politics of Jazz.” In Gerald Early, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Boxing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, 279-88.
  • ___, Federal Art Project: American Design. Orange County Great Park Gallery, December 2, 2018-February 10, 2019.
  • Jasamin Rostam-Kolayi, “The New Frontier Meets the White Revolution: The Peace Corps in Iran, 1962-1976,” Iranian Studies, 51:4 (May 2018): 587-612, DOI: 10.1080/00210862.2018.1464386
  • ___, “‘Beautiful Americans’: Peace Corps Iran in the Global Sixties” in Revisiting 1968 and the Global Sixties, eds. Chen Jian, Martin Klimke, et. al., Routledge, 2018.
  • Aitana Guia, “Nativism, Gendered Islamophobia and Muslim Activism in Spanish North Africa.” In North Africa and the Making of Europe: Governance, Institutions and Culture, edited by Muriam Haleh Davis and Thomas Serres, 133-154. London: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing, 2018.
  • ___, “Political Muslim Women: Embracing Citizenship and Feminism in Democratic Spain.” In Observing Islam in Spain, edited by Ana I. Planet and Angeles Ramirez, 158-180. Leiden: Brill, 2018.
  • ___, “Ni tan lejos, ni tan cerca. Las migraciones en la España contemporánea.” In Nueva historia de la España Contemporánea (1808-2018), edited by José Álvarez Junco and Adrian Shubert, 489-517. Madrid: Galaxia Gutenberg, 2018.
  • ___, “Emmurallem-nos! Una onada nativista amenaça les democràcies liberals multiculturals” (¡Let’s Build a Wall! A Nativist Wave Threatens Liberal Multicultural Democracies). L’Espill 59 (Fall 2018- Winter 2019).

News from our Graduates

Gelane Diamond, BA '18

While at CSUF, I majored in history and minored in political science. CSUF provided great opportunities for interdisciplinary study and professional development. I participated in Model UN and Moot Court. I also studied for a semester in Washington, D.C. with the Cal State D.C. Scholars Program, where I interned at the State Department. My time in the history department was both challenging and rewarding. I thoroughly enjoyed the learning and research, and even had my paper published in the Welebaethan. As a member of the Honors Program, I had the opportunity to work with one of my history professors for a year on my senior thesis. It was a rewarding experience to research, write, and receive helpful guidance and feedback from my mentor. Upon graduating from CSUF, I moved to Arlington, Virginia to attend law school at George Mason University’s Antonin Scalia Law School. I will graduate from Scalia Law in May 2021. I firmly believe my time balancing my studies and extracurricular activities at CSUF prepared me for the rigor of law school. This summer, I will be interning at the New Civil Liberties Alliance, a public interest law firm specializing in administrative law, in Washington, D.C. Ultimately, my experience at CSUF was incredibly rewarding. I am so grateful for both the opportunities CSUF provided for me and the faculty, who truly cared and invested in my education.

Joey Low, MA '18

After graduating from CSUF with a history MA, I transitioned to a history PhD program at Brandeis University in Boston. So far, the experience has been excellent. The graduate students here are all very helpful and welcoming. We build a surprisingly nice community in the history department, and I enjoy the events the department hold from time to time such as workshops, guest speakers and dinners. As of right now, I’m finishing coursework, language training, source gathering, and I begin TA’ing and preparing for comprehensive exams next year. One of the negative aspects of living in Boston is probably the weather. Compared to California, Boston has much more snow, rain, and wind, all of which can appear quite randomly at times. But that is the price of living near such an amazing academic atmosphere in the northeast region. The Boston area has many great schools such as Tufts, BC, BU, MIT, and Harvard, and Brandeis students can take classes at any of these institutions for credit. Last Fall, I took a graduate seminar on late Imperial China at Harvard under the direction of two of the most renown historians in the field, Michael Szonyi and Mark Elliott. This experience probably marked the height of my career, even though I felt unworthy being in the presence of other Harvard people sometimes, as I’m not from Harvard. Regardless, I learned much about Chinese history and made some important connections there. Despite my successes so far, I still have a long and difficult road ahead of me, and I look forward to the challenge.

Katie Calhoun, BA '17

Since graduation, I entered into the Master of Arts in Global Governance, Politics, and Security program at American University's School of International Service in Washington D.C. I am interning at Democracy International and serve as an event coordinator for the Global Politics Student Association. I am constantly in awe here in the capital. Not only is it the heart of American politics and history, but the epicenter of U.S.-foreign relations as well. I am working my way toward a career in international affairs and as I make my way, I've been searching for good Mexican and Chinese food, making new friends, taking photographs, and painting. Alas, nothing can compare to the food and weather of Southern California, therefore I am advocating to move the U.S. capital to San Diego. #MoveDCtoSD

Jennifer Keil, MA '14

As a full-time digital historian, I opened my business called 70 Degrees in order to help institutions build and provide public access to their archives. Part of my portfolio is digitizing records for the Moulton Family Foundation which represents the former Rancho Niguel. This OC ranch was nearly 22,000 acres owned by Lewis F. Moulton. The CSUF practicum coursework taught me to write interpretive plans, archive collections, curate exhibitions, and review historic site nominations such as the Aliso Viejo Ranch project. I am also collaborating with UCI Chicano Studies professors and the Korean Consulate of Los Angeles to curate their communities’ history.

During my graduate studies at CSUF, I had the amazing opportunity to receive training from the Lawrence de Graaf Center for Oral and Public History and received an award from the namesake. I became passionate about preserving the spoken word and was invited to present my research at an Oral History Association conference with my colleagues. In 2015 I joined the Southwest Oral History Association board. In 2016, we held a joint conference with OHA to commemorate their 50th anniversary and our 35th anniversary. I was asked to be a part of the local arrangements committee. I became SOHA’s 1st VP and had the opportunity to chair the 2018 conference in Fullerton in partnership with COPH. Dr. Granata, my master project mentor, and I had the opportunity to plan this event together. As SOHA is preparing for it’s joint #SOHAatOHA2019 conference in Salt Lake City, I am reflecting on my journey to being nominated organization president. I am working with OHA President, Dr. Natalie Fousekis and her team to make this conference successful. We hope you will join us October 16-19th, 2019.

I encourage you to join Phi Alpha Theta to expand your network. Also, take courses in business and museum studies in order to expand your CV skill sets. You can volunteer to help organize lectures, symposiums, and events such as the upcoming 50th anniversary for COPH. I did this during my studies which connected me to consulates and folklore specialists. I know that this experience in public history is just beginning and I can’t wait to collaborate with you as you enter the exciting field of history!

Rayann Treganza, BA '17

Since graduating from CSUF in 2017, I moved back home and started a teaching career of my own. I’m in my first year of teaching 12th grade civics and economics at Porterville High School. Teaching civics at such a crucial point in our history has been the most rewarding thing I’ve been able to do with my life thus far. A friend of mine who works with NextGen California came to my class in October to talk to my students about voting, the importance of voting, and registering to vote. Together we registered (and pre-registered those still 17)over 100 new voters! Some were eligible to vote in last year’s midterm election and all will be eligible to vote in 2020.

When I went to college, I did not think I would end up teaching. But it was a series of professors I had at CSUF that made the difference for me. My hope is to make the same difference for them, that my professors did for me.

Mariea Daniell Whittington, BA '07 MA '12

Hello fellow Titans! My name is Mariea Daniell Whittington, proud CSUF almuna of the History department. In 2012, I graduated with an emphasis in medieval studies (ablativus absolutus to my Latinistas and Dr. Burgtorf!). Realizing I wanted to compliment my masters degree in History, I went on to receive my other masters in Library and Information Science in 2014. Since then, I’ve travelled all over the world, and some notable places include: South Africa, Istanbul, Ireland, Japan, Iceland, and most recently Malaysia! I’ve also opened two primary school libraries in South Africa and Malaysia with the help of my Church. Currently, I am the Assistant Library Director and Electronic Resources Librarian at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena. You can find me at the Renaissance Faire in Irwindale (where else do medievalists go to have fun?) and CSUF History events as one of the elderly alumni. May all of you reading this enjoy your time at CSUF and in the History department! You’ll make lifelong friends and realize that time flies by too fast when you’re having fun, like formatting footnotes (all hail Lady Turabian!).

Student Spotlight: Reports from the field

A Journey to Crystal City

Helen Yoshida, MA Candidate

“Zavala County, woo hoo!” said Trudy Werner as she, my mom, and I turned onto Route 83 towards Crystal City, Texas.

It was an overcast and rainy Saturday morning when we drove from San Antonio, Texas, to the original site of the Crystal City Department of Justice (DOJ) camp in Crystal City. This camp incarcerated the Werners, and other German, Italian, Japanese, and Latin American families during World War II. Trudy had not returned to the site since her family was released during the summer of 1946.

“They kept us almost a full year after the end of the war because I guess they wanted to have people that they could exchange in case there were still some prisoners somewhere that they need to provide bodies to exchange for prisoners of war,” Trudy said during our July 2018 interview for my oral history project on three World War II DOJ camps.

She also talked about the recent presentation about that camp that she gave to her retirement community. “I enjoyed doing it because I had been a museum docent, and I had given tours and explained things, and I just thought it was an episode in our history that people should know about, so it was something that I wanted to put out there.”

Trudy and I met through my mom, who had been working in Washington D.C. When my mom participated in a Textile Museum workshop that Trudy led during the 2010 Cherry Blossom Festival, she noticed the small, painted, wooden bird pinned to Trudy’s blouse. After the workshop, my mom told Trudy that her pin looked very similar to those pins on display in the exhibition “The Art of Gaman: Arts and Crafts from the Japanese American Internment Camps, 1942-1946” that she had seen at the Renwick Gallery. Trudy told her that one of the Crystal City incarcerees had given the pin to her mother as a gift.

On March 2, 2019, the three of us turned onto Popeye Lane and parked the car on the grounds of Crystal City High School. Even though the high school was built over the camp, foundations from the administration quarters still stand near the school’s tennis courts and baseball field. Engravings on three plaques from the Texas Historical Commission tell the story about the Alien Enemy Control Program, which oversaw the network of DOJ camps during the war, and the Crystal City DOJ camp. A granite cube marker dedicated by the families of Japanese ancestry who were incarcerated in the camp serves as “a reminder that the injustices and humiliations suffered here as a result of hysteria, racism, and discrimination, never happen again.”

We stepped out of the car and into the humid air. The rain stopped but our shoes picked up water and grass clippings as we walked over to the plaques, stone monument, and the cement foundations to take in the original site. “Oh my goodness, we’re here,” said Trudy. Few words about her wartime experience passed between us as we walked around the foundations, read the plaques, and took photographs. But when we visited the statue of Popeye the Sailor Man, Trudy wondered if there was a welcome sign in another part of town that showed Popeye holding a can of spinach. Crystal City was considered the spinach capital of the world during World War II and Trudy had fond memories of seeing the Popeye statue in town. We drove around but didn’t see any sign like the one she described until we pulled into a park so that I could pull up the driving directions on my phone before we headed back to San Antonio.

“There’s Popeye!” said Trudy, leaping out of the car to take a photograph of it.

Her quietness and excitement spoke to the significance of seeing these sites in person. When my extended family visited the Heart Mountain incarceration camp in Wyoming, we talked about the feelings of curiosity, sadness, excitement, and satisfaction about walking on the same ground and seeing the same view of Heart Mountain that our parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents experienced during World War II. Although my family was not incarcerated in the DOJ camps, I was glad that we traveled to the original site together to see it and be there for Trudy as she experienced Crystal City again seventy-three years later.

Report from the Archives

Jacob Vela, BA Candidate

Black Family Fellowship Recipient

As a child, I always dreamed of attending a prestigious college; after all, Harvard and Yale were romanticized throughout popular media. Yet as I struggled in public school not because of the workload, but rather family issues at home, I soon became distant from that dream. I learned to accept that local colleges were for me, considering my family, or what was left of it, had no money to aid me elsewhere, and my grades that were affected by my home life were nowhere near the level I would need to earn a scholarship. So, head held down, I attended Golden West College and Orange Coast College before transferring to California State University, Fullerton.

To say a lot has happened since I started college would be an understatement. I moved out of my unhealthy home before I even began my first term of college at the age of eighteen, finding a job to help support myself as I have had to throughout most of my life. The grades that were abysmal in high school soon saw a boost, although not the greatest improvement at first, admittedly. I was still adapting to this new lifestyle, both at home and at school. It was when I finally transferred over to CSUF that I re-found my love for school once again: classes that interested me, classes that were filled with scholarly debates, and even classes that I never considered taking captured my imagination, my attention, and my heart, rekindling this love that I had once thought to have died out.

Professors challenged my abilities, while still providing support that I found many of my high school teachers failed to do. It was with this constant support that I was recommended to apply for the Black Family Fellowship, a fellowship that gifts students $2,000 to aid in their research. Were I to earn this fellowship, I planned to travel to Tempe, Arizona and New Haven, Connecticut, as my History 490T paper focuses on two leading figures of the “American Indian Renaissance”: N. Scott Momaday and Simon J. Ortiz. So with high hopes, supporting professors, and a held breath, I applied, and much to my astonishment, I was awarded the funds.

“Me? They awarded this to me?” was all I could think when I first read the email congratulating me as a recipient of the fellowship. Hands literally shaking, I wanted to cry out as loud as I possibly could. My heart was beating out of my chest and I felt the world fall off my shoulders.

I first traveled to Tempe, Arizona at the end of January, heading out to Arizona State University and their archives: Labriola Center. Upon my journey, I was fascinated entering the city of Phoenix. The city appeared to be designed as a stream, as many roads were one-way, leading travelers into the heart of the city. When I first entered the Labriola Center, I was unprepared for what to expect. It was housed in an older building, one worn down through weathering and age, compared to the upkept town. A single person sat behind a computer, whilst another worked in the backroom. Upon entering, I was surprised to find that the size of the reading room was not much bigger than the size of my living room. On my return back to Fullerton, I was proud of my work, eager to start my essay, and even more prepared to travel to New Haven, CT to access the archives at Yale in the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library.

I was a fish out of water upon the plane touching down at the airport in Connecticut. Snow shoveled hills surrounded the perimeter, and the weather was chilly to say the least.

I hailed a ride immediately to the library, wishing to waste no time during my extended stay here. Luggage in hand, I walked into the large cube-liked building, in awe of the presence of books that towered over head behind a large, glass case. Immediately, I knew this was nothing like the Labriola Center in Arizona. I requested my materials and received a few laughs. The “boxes” at the Labriola Center were small and easy to carry, much like a folder. These materials on the other hand, these were full on moving boxes, packed end-to-end with materials to dive into.

The days quickly past, but I was dedicated to finishing my work a day early, as a professor encouraged and reminded me that life too short to not enjoy the opportunities gifted to us. So it with great thanks to Dr. Burlingham that I awoke early on my final full-day in New Haven, walked over to the train station, and purchased a one-way ticket to Grand Central Station. As the train pulled into the station and its passengers filed out, a strong stench punched my nose, welcoming me to the bustling city. I walked into the terminal and was surrounded by crowds of people, some tourists, others, commuters heading off to work. I took some time to breathe in the sights and sounds, and was astonished with the decorations painted on the ceiling. With no plan in mind, I decided to walk to Central Park, eager to set my eyes on the city as a free soul tied to no responsibilities for the day. I was at peace. Everyone moved with a purpose, a sense of urgency and agency was strong. Red lights were suggestions for people not to cross, and cars fought for dominance in the streets. But when I came to Central Park, everything slowed down.

Never in a million dreams did I think this was possible, not after I learned that the likelihood of doing so was so slim. I had accepted failure, not because of my work ethic, but because of the barriers I had to break through at home just to reach this kind of success.

Often times I have felt isolated, alone in my struggle to survive and live day to day. Yet, when I was given the chance to prove myself, I knew I had to take it. No longer am I proving my abilities to others, seeking validation from them. Now, I seek to prove to myself of what I can do, and want to work to do that which I can’t yet do. Dr. Stern believed in my abilities and helped provide the confidence I needed to apply for this fellowship and pursue these dreams, so it is with a heavy heart that I say thank you. Words alone are not enough to explain my gratitude for your support. Dr. Burlingham reminded me that “all work and no play makes Jac[ob] a dull boy.” Thank you for pushing me to pursue a topic that is near and dear to my heart, and encouraging me to take the time to appreciate the opportunities presented to me in the present rather than reflect on it after the fact. My time in college was restricted due to work, and I never got to experience the “college experience” as much as I would have liked, but the opportunity awarded me by the Black Family Fellowship offered me more than anything I could’ve wished for: it provided me confidence in myself, and furthermore, it assured me that I am on the path to success. Thank you.

FACULTY SPOTLIGHT: PODCASTING, TEACHING, TRAVEL, AND RESEARCH

Outspoken: A Podcast of the Lawrence de Graaf Center for Oral and Public History

Dr. Benjamin Cawthra

Professor of History and Associate Director, Lawrence de Graaf Center for Oral and Public History

I used to think it would be fun to host a talk show. Back when I thought such thoughts long ago, it wasn’t easy to imagine an accessible forum to host smart talk that didn’t involve full career immersion into corporate media along with a good dose of luck. But then came the internet, and Web 2.0, and the many possibilities presented by the digital world. Not very long ago, it actually seemed strange that I didn’t have a talk show, what with podcasts popping up everywhere. Enter Outspoken.

Outspoken is the De Graaf Center’s version of a talk show—a podcast discussing our projects and other historical issues of interest to our community. Since much of the Center’s work involves talk, it seems perfectly natural to talk about the talk that happens when narrators open up to our interviewers. If the Center has a new project, we talk about it. If there is an older one still chugging, we talk about that too. Behind it all is the sense that publicly-engaged scholarship should not only reflect the collaborative nature of the work itself but should be shared far and wide as it progresses. Outspoken gives us a chance to do that. And it lets me play talk show host after all.

Since those of us at the Center seem to enjoy talking about anything related to history, content never seems to be a problem. Sometimes the talk is one-one-one, sometimes three or more voices are involved. And sometimes Center Director Natalie Fousekis drops by to talk about her favorite topic, politics. Students, faculty, alumni, and members of the wider community have all contributed. Our crack producers—first Carie Rael and then Keri Marken—have edited our talk into manageable chunks for our listeners.

The podcast, which debuted in 2016 and now runs to 15 episodes, usually has two main elements: conversation and clips. The conversation, hosted by me, addresses a Center project, a theme in public history, or a public event such as the Oral History Association Annual Meeting or the annual Hansen Lecture in Oral and Public History. The clips are provided by Center archivist Natalie Navar, plucked from the Center’s vast archive and keyed to the conversation. Production techniques vary from lightly edited long-form conversation to more densely produced pieces mixing new and archival material. All episodes of the podcast are available through the Center web page as well as iTunes and Soundcloud.

A SPRING SEMESTER IN D.C.: Putting HISTORY AT THE CENTER OUR NATIONAL POLITICS

Dr. Volker Janssen

Professor of History

The Cal State DC Scholars Program has been sending students from H&SS and other colleges to Washington D.C. for a mix of coursework and intensive internships on the hill and around the capital since 2006. Following in the footsteps of Prof. Allison Varzally’s stint in D.C. in the summer of 2017, I moved Catherine, my wife, and our two children (8 and 11) to the east coast for the first five months of 2018 to teach and supervise the internships of a small but dedicated group of remarkable students. Vincent Gonzalez was the one history major in the group predominated by Political Science majors – the beginning of a larger trend of history students seeking the D.C. experience, I hope.

There is nothing like teaching in the nation’s capital. After all, it’s not difficult to insist on the importance of history when you sit in a small classroom right behind the Supreme Court and across the street from the offices of Senators Kamala Harris and Dianne Feinstein. While the course Leadership for Public Service came from the Political Science catalog, it virtually begged for applied historical lessons in political leadership.

In addition to my seminar and another course on Washington D.C. in the style of a study abroad class, students brought a lot of their internship experiences to the classroom tables. Many served in the offices of Southern California members of Congress, including Ken Calvert (R), Mark Takano (D), Kamala Harris (D), Ed Royce (R), Lou Correa (D), and Darrell Issa (R). Other internships took students of the hill to the Department of the Interior, the United Nations Foundation, and the progressive advocacy group Patriotic Millionaires. Over their sixteen weeks, these students got to do a whole lot more than making copies and coffee. You can find out about their stories in a series of videos available on http://hss.fullerton.edu/cal_state_dc/ when you scroll down to “A Day in the Life of a Cal State DC Scholar.”

Over the semester, the program began to feel a lot like a study abroad program. We toured the Library of Congress, saw the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Archives, hiked Rock Creek Park, watched the Washington Nationals lose, met and chatted with President Fram Virjee, had coffees, drinks, and dinners. Many of us walked in the Women’s March and the March for our Lives – a demonstration I will not soon forget. And my kids probably learned as much as my students. From apartment living, navigating an inner city with public transportation, homeschooling in coffee shops and libraries, to political activism a “stone throw” away from the White House and, of course, the Smithsonians, they packed more into their semester than any of us.

“Be a Lincoln”: The Making of High Impact Practices in History

Dr. Aitana Guia

Assistant Professor of History

Update by Justin Zbierski, History Major, BA '19

Over the course of the Spring 2019 semester, students in Dr. Aitana Guia’s Spanish Civil War class (HIST435C) have contributed to the study of history as active participants in the field. Lectures were few and far between as students directed their own conversations about all aspects of the civil war including international politics, personal accounts of the war, and the development of culture and art surrounding the events of 1936 - 1939.

After reviewing Adam Hochschild’s award winning book Spain in Our Hearts, the students of HIST435C had the opportunity to meet with the famed author, journalist, and lecturer to discuss his approach to the Spanish Civil War. No stone was left unturned as the students of CSU Fullerton’s history department investigated Mr. Hochschild’s research methods and motivations for writing such an all-encompassing book about the young American volunteers in Spain. This experience left many students with the feeling that they had engaged in a conversation as fellow researchers themselves, sharing knowledge between colleagues.

The Spring semester culminated in the “Be A Lincoln!” symposium, where students from HIST435C temporarily turned the lecture hall next to the CSU Fullerton archives into a 1936 meeting of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Over one hundred CSU participants listened to and performed first-hand accounts of the Lincoln Brigade volunteers including Dr. Rostam-Kolayi (CSUF History Chair), Dr. Chris Brown (President of the California Faculty Association), Bobbie Porter (CSUF Assistant Vice President of Diversity, Inclusion & Equity) as well as a special appearance and reading from Francisco Javier Vallaure de Acha (Consul General of Spain in Los Angeles). Throughout the semester, students in HIST435 uncovered rare historical artifacts from the Cameron Stewart Collection and shared their findings at the symposium, including letters from veterans themselves, Spanish-Republican magazines, Francoist Magazines, and newsletters from the 1930s American Left.

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