Figure and Ground
Much like positive and negative space, figure and ground is the separation of what is in the foreground and what is in the background of an image. With the figure being the foreground or the focusing point and, the ground being the background or what is surrounding the figure. The reason that it is important to make a distinction between the figure and ground is due to the fact that when creating a piece the artist can choose to bluer the lines between the figure and the ground. Some even chose to have the figure interact with what is around them and thus are able to play with the viewers eyes with what they are able to see.
(Digital) Grounded By Kevin Blancahrd
Pattern in art is the repetition of like (or similar) objects in a work of art. patterns (like everything else in a art piece) can be used to help direct the eye. The patterns are sometimes used to help create a rhythm or a sense of continuity with in a piece. I say some times because patterns can be used as exact opposite in order to create a stark contrast from the rest of the piece and thus make certain parts pop in the image.
(digital print) Pineapple By Basilique (society6.com/basilique)
Frame and surface
Frame is a term that, when brought in to art, ties very closely into the composition of a piece. Composition is the process of arranging the visual element in a work. Frame takes it a step further in that now you have to keep in mind the placement of the elements in reference to the size of the canvas or surface that you are doing your project on. Two ways of doing that is by using the golden ratio or the rule of thirds when looking at the art piece.
Surface, like I said earlier, is basically the object that you are doing your project on. Surface is important here not only because of how it can affect the framing of a piece but because of it also being a major factor in how the project will be affected. I mean lets face it, doing a painting on birch bark will end up looking a lot different than being painted on canvas.
(Digital) Mornings by Kevin Blanchard
Texture in digital art is usually used to help render and object. By adding texture and making it form to certain objects the artist is able to bring about a more realistic work of art. Of course textures don't have to be used this way. Jason Brubaker (the artist behind ReMind) uses some of his scanned in painting strokes as a middle ground between his coloring and his inks. Since the textures are things we associate with paintings, Jason's comic receives somewhat of an naturalistic atmosphere to it.