Loading

中共如何培养外国政客 【中英对照翻译】

新闻来源:The Economist《经济学人》;发布时间:December 10, 2020 /2020年12月10日

翻译/简评:Lully;校对/审核:万人往;Page:拱卒

简评:

文章讲述了中共通过外交手段对各国执政党进行渗透,输出“习近平思想“。在中共糖衣炮弹的轰炸下,外国一些没有底线的政客为中共唱赞歌,称赞中共国所谓的扶贫、战胜疫情,甚至要向自己所在的政党宣扬《习近平谈治国理政》。

中共国所谓的全民脱贫背后,是6亿人月收入少于1000人民币;所谓的战胜疫情,不过是封堵百姓之口,让党媒颠倒黑白。本可以用来改善民生的财政收入,被用来搞大撒币外交,在国际上供养一些口是心非的政客,以至于国内民生凋敝,百姓生活举步维艰。一个为了几个家族利益而压迫14亿人民的政党,不配在中国执政,必将被扫进历史的垃圾堆。

原文翻译:

Exporting Xi Jinping thought How China’s Communist Party trains foreign politicians

中国共产党如何培养外国政客——输出习近平思想

Across the world it is seeking to sway tomorrow’s leaders

它正试图在全球范围内左右未来的领导人

IN EARLY DECEMBER Xi Jinping, China’s leader, declared that the Communist Party had met a self-imposed deadline. Extreme poverty (defined as earning a bit more than $1 a day) has been eradicated from China. Naturally, the party is keen to tell others about its success in fighting penury. In October it hosted a mostly-virtual two-day seminar on the subject for nearly 400 people from more than 100 countries. Participants quoted by official media gushed praise for China’s progress. But the gathering was not just about uplifting the needy. It was also aimed at showing off China’s political model.

12月初,中共国领导人习近平宣布,共产党已经完成了自己设定的任务期限。极端贫困(定义为每天收入1美元多一点)已经从中共国被完全消除。当然,中共热衷于告诉别人其战胜贫困的成功。去年10月,中共举办了一个为期两天的研讨会,有来自100多个国家的近400人参加。官方媒体援引与会者对中共国的进步大加赞扬。但这次会议不仅仅是为了改善穷人生活,这也是为了炫耀中共国的政治模式。

In the West, recent coverage of China’s diplomacy has been dominated by talk of how aggressive it has become. Some of its diplomats have been dubbed “wolf warriors” because of their habit of snarling at foreign critics (the label refers to the title of a jingoistic Chinese film). To non-Western audiences, by contrast, Chinese officials are speaking more softly. They preach the virtues of a form of governance that they believe is making China rich and can help other countries, too. Some welcome this message, even in multiparty democracies. At the poverty-alleviation forum, the secretary-general of Kenya’s ruling Jubilee Party, Raphael Tuju, was quoted as saying that China’s Communist Party should be an example for his own.

在西方,最近有关主要谈论中共国外交的报道变得极其咄咄逼人。一些中共外交官被称为“战狼”(这个标签指的是带有沙文主义的中共国电影的标题),因为他们惯于对外国评论家咆哮。相比之下,对于非西方观众,中共国官员的讲话则更为温和;他们鼓吹这种治理方式的优点,并且认为这种方式能够让中共国致富,也可以帮助到其他国家。即使是在多党民主国家,也有些政客喜欢这种方式。在扶贫论坛上,肯尼亚执政的朱比利党秘书长拉斐尔·图尤(Raphael Tuju)表示,中国共产党理应成为他自己政党的一个榜样。

In 2017 Mr Xi caused a stir in the West by suggesting that China’s development model offered “a new option” for other countries, and that a “Chinese approach” could help solve humanity’s problems. Though he later insisted that his country did not plan to export a “China model”, the country’s officials have been, in effect, doing just that. Some of those engaged in this effort belong to the foreign ministry. But many, such as those who organised the recent seminar on poverty, work for a branch of the Communist Party called the International Department. Its job is to win support for China among foreign political parties.

2017年,习近平在西方引起了轰动,这表明中共国的发展模式为其他国家提供了“一个新选项”,而“中共国模式”可以对解决人类的问题有所帮助;尽管习近平后来坚称,他的国家不打算输出“中共国模式”,但实际上,该国官员正在这样做。参与这项工作的一些人属于外交部。然而许多人,比如那些组织最近关于贫困问题研讨会的人,都是为共产党的一个分支机构——国际部工作;其任务是赢得外国政党对中共国的支持。

The department is well suited to the task. Because it does not directly represent the Chinese state it has no role to play in verbal sparring. But as a party outfit it has considerable authority. It works closely with the foreign ministry and swaps personnel with it.

这一部门非常适合这项任务。因为它不能直接代表中共政府,它在言语上没有任何作用。但作为一个政党机构,它有相当大的权威。它与外交部密切合作,并与外交部互换人员。

Late in 2017 it held a convention in Beijing joined by leaders and other members of political parties from 120 countries. Some delegates were from rich democracies such as Japan, New Zealand and America. (Both Republicans and Democrats attended.) Mr Xi gave the keynote address. Many participants signed a statement, the “Beijing Initiative”, praising the Communist Party and Mr Xi. The department has few qualms about the kind of political parties with which it interacts. “They’ll deal with right-wing parties and they’ll deal with left-wing parties and everybody in between,” says David Shambaugh of George Washington University.

2017年底,中共国在北京举行了一次会议,来自120个国家的领导人和其他政党成员参加了会议。一些代表来自富裕的民主国家,如日本、新西兰和美国。(共和党和民主党都参加了)习发表了主题演讲。许多参与者签署了一份声明,“北京倡议”,赞扬共产党和习近平。该部门对与之打交道的政党类型没有什么顾虑。乔治华盛顿大学的沈大伟(David Shambaugh)说:“他们将与右翼政党和左翼政党以及两者之间的所有人打交道。”

Under Mr Xi one of the department’s main activities has been organising training sessions for foreign political parties, especially those from developing countries. It does not say outright that authoritarianism is good. But its mission is clearly to promote the virtues of strong centralised leadership. In November Song Tao, the department’s boss, claimed in an online briefing of party leaders from 36 sub-Saharan African countries that the party’s achievements in development proved the wisdom of five-year plans. “The Chinese system,” he said, could “serve as a reference” for his audience. He said that “only by upholding the leadership of the party” could such plans “stay on the right track”.

在习的领导下,外交部的主要活动之一就是为外国政党,特别是发展中国家的政党组织培训课程。虽然其并没有直截了当地说独裁主义是好的;但它的使命显然是宣传高度中央集权领导的优点。11月,该部门负责人宋涛在一次面向36个撒哈拉以南非洲国家领导人的网络简报中称,党的发展成就证明了五年计划的智慧。他说,“中共国的体制”可以为他的观众“提供参考”。他说,“只有坚持党的领导”,这样的计划才能“保持在正确的轨道上”。

During the pandemic much of the department’s instruction has been conducted online, often focusing on China’s achievements in crushing covid-19 (one lesson: tough measures work). Expositions on Mr Xi’s three-part tome, “The Governance of China” have also been a common feature. In recent months such classes have been attended by officials from ruling parties in Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Ghana, Mozambique, Panama and Venezuela.

在疫情大流行期间,该部门的大部分指令都是在网上进行的,并且通常集中在中共国在消灭covid-19方面取得的成就上(教训之一:采取强硬措施)。对习的三部《治国理政》的阐释也是一个共同的特点。最近几个月,安哥拉、刚果-布拉柴维尔、加纳、莫桑比克、巴拿马和委内瑞拉的执政党官员都参加了此类培训。

Official websites in China often advertise these efforts. One describes a ground-breaking ceremony in 2018 for a China-funded ideological school in Tanzania. It was attended by Mr Song, the department’s boss, and by ruling-party officials from Tanzania, South Africa, Angola, Mozambique, Namibia and Zimbabwe.

中共国的官方网站经常宣传这些事迹。其中一个宣传描述了2018年中共国资助的坦桑尼亚一所意识形态学校的奠基仪式。该部门的主管宋涛以及来自坦桑尼亚、南非、安哥拉、莫桑比克、纳米比亚和津巴布韦的执政党官员出席了此次活动。

In democracies such as Ghana, Kenya and South Africa the department sponsors trips to China by ruling-party members for the study of party-building and governance. In 2018 Ghana’s ruling centre-right New Patriotic Party (NPP) asked for such training in part to “deepen its ideological skills”, found Joshua Eisenman of the University of Notre Dame, an expert on the department’s activities in Africa. The former ruling party of Ghana, the National Democratic Congress (NDC), has sent dozens of its staff to China for such training. The NDC has also opened a leadership school in Ghana. It uses teaching materials devised by the Chinese Communist Party.

在加纳、肯尼亚和南非等民主国家,国务院赞助执政党成员赴中共国学习党建和治理。圣母大学的约书亚·艾森曼(Joshua Eisenman)是该部门在非洲活动的专家,他发现,2018年加纳执政的中右翼新爱国党(NPP)要求进行此类培训,部分是为了“加深其意识形态技能”。加纳前执政党全国民主大会(NDC)已派出数十名工作人员到中共国接受此类培训。国家发展委员会还在加纳开办了一所领导学校,它使用了中国共产党设计的教材。

It is unclear what foreign party members gain from China’s training sessions. They may be no more than a means of career advancement, or of paying ritual homage to Mr Xi’s wisdom in order to curry favour—China being a valuable source of loans and investment in many developing countries. The seminars can be boozy junkets, dreary snoozefests, or both. An Egyptian veteran of them says they are hardly rigorous; she likened the experience to a “paid vacation”.

目前还不清楚外国党员从中共国的培训课程中得到了什么,诸如此类可能不过是一种晋升的手段,或是为了讨好中共国——在许多发展中国家,中共国是一个宝贵的贷款和投资来源——或是对习的智慧表示礼节性的敬意。研讨会可以是酒宴,也可以是沉闷的打盹宴,或者两者兼而有之。一位埃及的资深人士说,他们几乎不严谨;她把这次经历比作一次“带薪休假”。

The department says it has contact with more than 600 political organisations in over 160 countries. Under Mr Xi such engagements have grown. Christine Hackenesch and Julia Bader, writing for International Studies Quarterly, found that the number of high-level party-to-party meetings increased by more than 50% between 2012 and 2017, to more than 230 annually. Martin Hala of Sinopsis, which monitors China’s activities in Central Europe, has called this akin to forming a “new Comintern”—a reference to the old Soviet-led international communist movement.

国务院表示,他们与160多个国家的600多个政治组织有联系。在习的领导下,这种接触有所增加。《国际研究季刊》的作者克里斯汀·哈克内什(Christine Hackenesch)和茱莉亚·巴德(Julia Bader)发现,从2012年到2017年,政党间高层会议的数量增加了50%以上,达到每年230次以上。一直观察中共国在中欧活动的Sinopsis的马丁·哈拉(Martin Hala)称,这类似于形成一个“新共产国际”——指的是旧苏联领导的国际共产主义运动。

There is a critical difference, however. China is not preaching communism. Its aim, rather, is to show that a country can become richer without being democratic. That message finds attentive ears among politicians who find the checks and balances of democracy irksome. In June Kenya’s MrTuju (the cheerleader for China at the anti-poverty seminar in October) was challenged about his party’s affection for the Chinese Communist Party by a reader of a Nairobi newspaper. He replied that he did not see what was wrong with “learning from the most successful and the best run” party in the world.

然而,两者之间有一个关键的区别:中共国不是在宣扬共产主义;相反,它的目的是表明,一个国家可以在不民主的情况下变得更富裕。那些对民主的制衡感到厌烦的政客们对这一选项很感兴趣。六月,肯尼亚的图尤先生(在十月的反贫困研讨会上为中共国喝彩的人)被内罗毕一家报纸的读者质疑他的政党对中国共产党有偏爱。图尤回答说,他不认为“向世界上最成功、运行最好的政党学习”有什么不对之处。

This article appeared in the China section of the print edition under the headline "How the party trains foreign politicians"

这篇文章出现在印刷版的中共国版,标题为“党是如何培养外国政客的”。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】