Protein synthesis Nakacia Robertson

What is protein synthesis

The process by which amino acids are linearly arranged into proteins through the involvement of ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA, and various enzemy

Steps to make protein synthesis

  1. DNA Replication
  2. Transcription
  3. Translation

KEY PLAYERS in Protein Synthesis

  • DNA - provides instructions for making protein
  • RNA - Delivers the message to the Ribosome to make protein
  • Ribosome -
  • Proteins

Why is it important ?

DNA is in the nucleus and ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, your cells need to rely on RNA, or ribonucleic acid, to transfer the information.


The goal of transcription is the link amino acids together to make proteins.

Where does it takes place ?


STEPS TO Translation

  1. mRNA fix to the ribosome ,Ribosome “reads” the mRNA sort in THREE BASES = a CODON
  2. TRNAmolecule get with right along with ANTICODON to match the mRNA CODON

3 . The tRNAmolecules holds the amino acids and bring themwith each other the peptide bongs to make a protein


The roll of TRANSCRIPTION is to rotate DNA into an mRNA message

Where does it takes place ?



  1. DNA Polymer (enzyme!) undo the DNA
  2. Uses the DNA template to build an mRNA (messenger RNA):recall , RNA uses U in place of T
  3. mRNA get away from the nucleus and move in the cytoplasm


it work the protein in the cells

how is protein made ?

DNA is used to make mRNA while throughtout transcription

how do it happen

If the DNA is mutated =changed then the nucleotides will be different.

If the mRNA is different, the amino acids that will be brought in might be different.



Types of mutations

  • Substitution -a mutation in which there is an exchange between two bases
  • Inversion -DNA is place in behind one.
  • Deletions - mutations that a section of DNA is removed .
  • Translocation - two non-homologous chromosomestrade sections of DNA
  • Duplication - dna make copies
  • Addition - mutations add on

Point Mutations - one nucleotide is swapped out for the other

Frame shift Mutations s are due to either insertions or deletions of nucleotides frame shift mutations tend to be more detrimental than point mutation In case of deletion or insertion of a particular fragment of the gene, deletion could be more harmful than insertion, because the deleted fragment of the gene will never be replaced .


Created By
Nakacia Robertson


Created with images by Caroline Davis2010 - "DNA" • Libertas Academica - "Figure 1" • NIAID - "Mechanisms of Action of TB Drugs Under Development" • quapan - "Ebolavirus molecularly biologized as a photoshopped illustration" • jurvetson - "Eye on Science" • phylofigures - "pgen.1000026.g002" • plosone-phylo - "pone.0018935.g001.png" • phylofigures - "pgen.1003393.g006" • plosone-phylo - "pone.0023122.g004.png" • phylofigures - "1756-3305-7-133-4" • phylofigures - "1471-2148-8-62-4" • plosone-phylo - "pone.0011309.g001.png" • plosone-phylo - "pone.0011309.g001.png"

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