China Hermelinda Ixcoy

Location Description: Located in Southeast Asia along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean, China is the world's third largest country, after Russia and Canada. With an area of 9.6 million square kilometers and a coastline of 18,000 kilometers, its shape on the map is like a rooster.

China is an ancient country having a profound history. Originated in the eastern area of the Yellow River Region, the country's civilization is over 5,000 years old and was considered one of four ancient civilizations of the world, along with the civilizations of the ancient Babylon, the ancient Egypt and the ancient India. The first dynasty of Chinese history started from the Xia Dynasty (2070BC-1600BC) and the last one was the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), while the most glorious period were the Qin (221BC-206BC), Han (206BC-220), Tang (618-907) and Ming (1368-1644) dynasties. During thousands of years of feudal ruling, Chinese people have created brilliant science and art culture, like the Four Great Inventions, the poetry, paintings and Chinese calligraphy. Also, a great amount of cultural relics such as the Great Wall and the Terra Cotta Warriors left by ancestors have become the treasures of the nation and the wonder of the world.

Though places like Tianjin, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Dongguan are not typical tourist destinations they have several "undiscovered" attractions, and lots to do. Visit the cities where your clothes and many other everyday items were made. China’s large cities are known as the “factory of the world”, though not all of them are "factory cities". Location: The Yangtze Delta, Central East China, Urban population: 22 million, GDP per capita: $14k Shanghai is the undisputed largest and wealthiest city in China. With a name synonymous with world trade, Shanghai has the largest and busiest port in terms of containers and cargo tonnage, a grand business district, two large airports (Pudong and Hongqiao), the world's fastest train (the Maglev), and a network of elevated highways.

Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the Chinese characters 北 for north and 京 for capital), is the capital of the People’s Republic of China and one of the most heavily populated cities in the world.

Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai -the 2010 census revealed that the official total population in Beijing was 19,612,368- and is the nation's political, cultural, and educational centre of China. The Beijing Capital International Airport is the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic.

China Climate: In China, a vast land spanning many degrees of latitude with complicated terrain, climate varies radically. China has a variety of temperature and rainfall zones, including continental monsoon areas. In winter most areas become cold and dry, in summer hot and rainy.
  1. China experiences regular rainfall each year, with precipitation increasing from southwest to northwest. The precipitation levels vary in different regions in China and can range from wet to dry. The rainy season begins in May and ends in September. The following are the five different temperature zones of China.
  2. Plateau Climate Zone The regions of Qinghai and Tibet belong to this zone. The city of Lhasa is within this temperature zone.
  3. Cold-Temperate Zone This zone encompasses Heilongjiang Province and part of Inner Mongolia. The city of Harbin is situated in this temperature zone.
  4. Mid-Temperate Zone Among the provinces in this zone are Jilin, northern Xinjiang, and part of Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia. The cities of Beijing, Shenyang, Dalian and Urumqi in Mongolia are part of this temperature zone.
  5. Warm-Temperate Zone This zone includes the middle and lower Yellow River, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi and Hebei provinces. The major cities in these areas are Taiyuan, Jinan, Xiyang and Qingdao.
  6. Subtropical Zone Situated along this temperature zone is the isotherm of Qinling Mountain-Huaihe River as well as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Also in this temperature zone are the cities of Shanghai and Guangzhou and the Chinese administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  7. Tropical Zone This southernmost temperature zone of China includes Hainan and Yunnan provinces. The city of Haikou is in this zone.

China is also one of the countries with the most abundant plant life in the world. There are more than 32,000 species of higher plants, and almost all the major plants that grow in the northern hemisphere's frigid, temperate and tropical zones are represented in China. In addition, there are more than 7,000 species of woody plants, including 2,800-odd tree species. The metasequoia, Chinese cypress, Cathay silver fir, China fir, golden larch, Taiwan fir, Fujian cypress, dove-tree, eucommia and camplotheca acuminata are found only in China. The metasequoia, a tall species of arbor, is considered to be one of the oldest and rarest plants in the world. The golden larch, one of only five species of rare garden trees in the world, grows in the mountainous areas in the Yangtze River valley. Its coin-shaped leaves on short branches are green in spring and summer, turning yellow in autumn. China is home to more than 2,000 species of edible plants and over 3,000 species of medicinal plants. Ginseng from the Changbai Mountains, safflowers from Tibet, Chinese wolfberry from Ningxia and notoginseng from Yunnan and Guizhou are particularly well-known Chinese herbal medicines. China has a wide variety of flowering plants; the peony, a flower indigenous to China and known as the "king of flowers," is characterized by large blossoms, multiple petals and bright colors, and is treasured as one of the country's national flowers.?

Pine Trees: Another famous Chinese tree is the pine tree. You can often see them in traditional Chinese paintings, growing crookedly from the edge of a mountain rock. China's most famous pine tree is found on Huangshan Mountain. It's called the Welcome Pine, and it's thought to be 1,500 years old!

Wildlife in China is very diverse, there are over 30,000 kinds of plants and over 4,400 species of vertebrates. Because of China's immense range of climates and landscape, there are many different kinds of habitats which support many different kinds of flora and fauna.

Giant Panda: The Giant Panda roams the forests and mountains of South West China. An endangered species, many reserves have been set up for the conservation of this animal unique to China and considered a national treasure.

Red Pandas are beautiful creatures and are coveted for their furs, in fact, poaching is one of their major threats. Like the Giant Panda, their population is also threatened by loss of habitat and deforestation.

Native of China, this small arboreal mammal is found in the mountainous forests of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. The Red Panda population is estimated at about 10,000 and is no longer classified as "endangered" but rather "vulnerable". You find them mainly in China and India, and to a small degree in Myanmar, Nepal and Bhutan.

China is a populous nation in East Asia whose vast landscape encompasses grassland, desert, mountains, lakes, rivers and more than 14,000km of coastline. Capital Beijing mixes modern architecture with historic sites such as the Forbidden City palace complex and Tiananmen Square. Shanghai is a skyscraper-studded global financial center. The iconic Great Wall of China runs east-west across the country's north.

Agriculture in China. Agriculture is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers. China ranks first in worldwide farm output, primarily producing rice, wheat, potatoes, tomato, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed and soybeans.

Although China's agricultural output is the largest in the world, only about 15% of its total land area can be cultivated. China's arable land, which represents 10% of the total arable land in the world, supports over 20% of the world's population. Of this approximately 1.4 million square kilometers of arable land, only about 1.2% (116,580 square kilometers) permanently supports crops and 525,800 square kilometers are irrigated.[16] The land is divided into approximately 200 million households, with an average land allocation of just 0.65 hectares (1.6 acres).

China's limited space for farming has been a problem throughout its history, leading to chronic food shortage and famine. While the production efficiency of farmland has grown over time, efforts to expand to the west and the north have met with limited success, as such land is generally colder and drier than traditional farmlands to the east. Since the 1950s, farm space has also been pressured by the increasing land needs of industry and cities.

Natural Resources: China has a large and varied stock of natural resources, including many minerals. The country has about 12 percent of the world's mineral resources, with only the United States and Russia possessing larger proportions. There are sizeable reserves of coal, iron, tin, copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, mercury, graphite, antimony, magnesite, fluorspar, and other.

Industry: Industrial production in China rose 6.2 percent year-on-year in November of 2016, compared to a 6.1 percent rise in the previous two months and slightly above market consensus of a 6.1 percent gain. It was the fastest growth since August, as output grew for manufacturing (+6.7 percent) and electricity, gas and water production (+9.9 percent). In contrast, mining production fell 2.9 percent. On a monthly basis, industrial output went up 0.51 percent, compared to a 0.50 percent in the prior month. Meanwhile, fixed-asset investment grew by 8.3 by percent in January to November 2016, the same pace as in the first ten month of 2016 and in line with expectations. Investment by private firms, which accounted for about 60 percent of total investment in China, increased by 3.1 percent from a year earlier, faster than a 2.9 percent rise during January to October 2016. Meantime, investment by public sector firms grew by 20.2 percent over the same period. Industrial Production in China averaged 12.49 percent from 1990 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 29.40 percent in August of 1994 and a record low of -21.10 percent in January of 1990.

China is a very diverse country with many distinct geographical regions. It has deserts, high mountains, grasslands, tropical forests and almost every other geographical feature type that you can think of.

In terms of altitude the general rule is that the terrain falls in steps from the high Tibetan plateau in the south west to the flat North Coastal plain in the north east.

Three great rivers run vaguely east to divide the nation into three east-west zones, the Huang He (Yellow River); Chang Jiang (Yangzi River) and Yu Jiang (Pearl River). Northern China is dominated by flat plains and coastlines while Southern China is mountainous with a rocky coastline. The usual dividing line between Northern and Southern China is on the Huai River which runs through Henan and Anhui. The lack of rain in Western China is one of the most important features of China's climate (see separate climate section).

Five Themes of Geography in China

The Chinese democracy movement (simplified Chinese: 中国民主运动; traditional Chinese: 中國民主運動; pinyin: Zhōngguó mínzhǔ yùndòng), abbreviated as Minyun (simplified Chinese: 民运; traditional Chinese: 民運; pinyin: Mínyùn), refers to a series of loosely organized political movements in the People's Republic of China against the continued one-party rule by the Communist Party. One such movement began during the Beijing Spring in 1978 and was taken up again in the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

  1. The convergence of multiple educational disciplines manifests as the subject of geography. Due to the complexity of the subject, there is a need to organize it into themes that facilitate the teaching of Geography in the world’s schools, colleges, and universities. In 1984, a comprehensive educational tool was devised that divided the subject of Geography into five themes. This division was done with the aim to aid the educational organizations to teach Geography in a more structured manner. The National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) and the Association of American Geographers (AAG) formally adopted the themes and formalized them in the printed form in the “Guidelines for Geographic Education, Elementary, and Secondary Schools” by NCGE/AA.
  2. The five themes of Geography are Location, Place, Human-Environment Interaction, Movement, and Region.
  3. Location:
  4. Location is defined as a particular place or position. Most studies of geography begin with the mention of this theme of geography. Location can be of two types: absolute location and relative location. In the former case, the location of a place is defined by its latitude and longitude or its exact address. Let us consider the case of Montreal, a city in Quebec, Canada. The coordinates 45°30′N 73°34′W define the absolute location of Montreal. However, when we say that Montreal is at a distance of approximately 540 km from Toronto, we are mentioning the relative location of Montreal. In another example, when we say that the address of the Natural History Museum of London is Cromwell Road London, SW7 5BD, United Kingdom, we are referring to its absolute location. However, we are mentioning its relative location when saying that the Natural History Museum is at a distance of about 5 km from another major tourist attraction of London, the London Eye.
  5. Place:
  6. Place refers to the physical and human aspects of a location. This theme of geography is associated with toponym (the name of a place), site (the description of the features of the place), and situation (the environmental conditions of the place). Each place in the world has its unique characteristics. The landforms, hydrology, biogeography, pedology, etc., of each place, is different, and so are its patterns of human habitation. The human characteristics of place are defined by the nature and size of its human population, the distinct human cultures, their ways of life, etc. The concept of “place” aids geographers to compare and contrast two places on Earth. For example, it helps to distinguish Antarctica from the Sahara Desert. One is a cold desert while the other is a hot one. While Antarctica has research stations and penguins, the Sahara has nomadic tribes and camels. Thus, in this way, the “place” theme of geography elaborates a clear picture of a place in the minds of the learners.
  7. Human-Environment Interaction:
  8. No other species that has lived on our planet, as per our knowledge to this date, has such a profound effect on the environment as humans. Humans have adapted to the environment in ways that have allowed them to dominate all other species on Earth. Humans have also achieved what no other species have been capable of doing (at least to such a radical extent): modifying the planet to attain their goals of living. Thus, human-environment interaction needs special emphasis and has been classified as one of the five themes of geography. It involves three distinct aspects, dependency, adaptation, and modification. Dependency explores the ways in which humans are dependent on nature for a living. For example, in India, farmers across the country wait for the monsoons to arrive for the successful growth of their rain-fed crops. If monsoons are late, or the rains are insufficient, droughts and food crisis might create havoc in the highly populated country. Adaptation relates to how humans modify themselves, their lifestyles and their behavior to live in a new environment with new challenges. The different types of clothing invented by humans is one of the finest examples of how humans adapted to varying environmental conditions since the early days. While people in the cold countries adorned wool and fur clothing, those in the warmer countries adhered to cotton. The third aspect of the human-environment interaction and the most important one that allowed humans to “conquer” the world is the modification of the environment for his comfortable living. Humans built dams to water their fields in the dry season. They invented air coolers and air heaters to modify the air temperatures of the environment they inhabited. Humans also tamed the wild animals for their use, converted large tracts of dense forests to human-dominated settlements, and developed automobiles and airplanes that shortened distances between places. It is this final aspect of the human-environment interaction, the modification of the environment, that has also created huge problems in the earth today. Global warming and climate change, mass extinctions of wild species, high levels of environmental pollution, etc., have all resulted from the drastic environmental modifications triggered by the human race.
  9. Movement:
  10. The Earth is full of movement and in a human-dominated planet, movement primarily refers to the translocation of human beings, their goods, and their ideas from one end of the planet to another. Thus, the theme of movement becomes an important part of geographical studies. Movement deals with studies of population immigration, emigration, and distribution in the countries of the world. It is this physical movement of people that has allowed the human race to inhabit all the continents and islands of the world and also explore the depths of the oceans and land on the moon. Another aspect of movement is the transport of goods from one place on the Earth to another. In other words, it is the study of human trade, a practice that has shaped human civilizations and cultures since the time the first Homo sapiens emerged. The third and an extremely vital aspect of the movement theme is the movement of ideas. It is this interchange of ideas between the nations of the world that allows the unification of the human civilization and promotes its growth and prosperity. Thus, the theme of movement forms an integral part of geographical studies.
  11. Region:
  12. An area on the planet that is composed of places with a unifying characteristic is a region, one of the five themes of geography. A region is defined by its uniform physical or human characteristics. A region whose boundaries are formally defined is known as a formal region. For example, metropolitan cities, districts, provinces, countries, and continents can be regarded as a formal region that is unified by a common political entity. A functional region usually encompasses a central point with defined boundaries and the area around it that is connected via a well-developed network of transportation and communication systems that facilitates the movement of people, goods, and ideas within that system. A large metropolitan city including its suburbs like the New York City in the United States, Mumbai in India, Tokyo in Japan, or Beijing in China, can be regarded as functional regions. The third type of region is vernacular region. When closely placed in the world have unifying characteristics, we tend to imagine these places bound by an “imaginary border.” Thus, though physical maps do not formally define the boundaries of such regions, we tend to create “mental maps” of such regions.For example, we often group the countries in the Arabian Peninsula as the “Middle-East region”, though such a region is never mentioned in the physical maps of the world.
  13. Notes:
  14. In 1994, a decade after the “five themes of geography” concept became highly popularized, the National Geographic Society (NGS) developed the National Geography Standards. These NGS standards were represented by a set of 18 standards that was to supersede the five themes of geography. However, though the standards presented by the NGS does significantly influence geographical studies in educational institutions, the five themes of geography also collectively continues to be used as a significant approach to delivering geographic education worldwide.
  • Credit: 89%
  • Hermelinda Hernandez Ixcoy
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Hermelinda Hernandez Ixcoy


Created with images by Jorge Dalmau & Pablo Dalmau Photography - "The Guangzhou River-The Pearl River-" • manhhai - "1900 Map of China, Burma, Siam, Annam &c." • JOESPH - "shanghai urban landscape the bund" • rejon - "Hong Kong" • tpsdave - "guangzhou china opera house" • lizheyu - "Changchun, China 长春" • Rincewind42 - "Snow and Ice World festival in Harbin, China" • NASA Earth Observatory - "Typhoons Saola and Damrey" • T100Timlen - "P1050805" • Mulligan Stu - "Huangshan - Grand Canyon" • RickWeiss - "Pandas!" • Su--May - "Red Panda" • lyng883 - "DSC02932" • barockschloss - "Street Vendor" • Prayitno / Thank you for (11 millions +) views - "China Town Honolulu" • @yakobusan Jakob Montrasio 孟亚柯 - "Changsha City." • Tscherno - "DSC_0057"

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