Qualities of Water Nick Borzillo & RJ Roney

Earth's Water Basics

Water is a basic transparent liquid that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, oceans, and the main fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all life on Earth. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. 96.5% of the planet's crust's water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and ice caps, a small fraction in other large bodies, and .001% in the air as vapor and/or precipitation. Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is fresh water, and 98.8% of the Earth's fresh water is found in ice and groundwater. Hydrology is the study of the water throughout the Earth.

The water Cycle

The water cycle is how water travels around our world. Lets say that the water starts in an ocean. From there it can evaporate. Then it precipitates. From there it can become forest moisture or soil moisture, and ground water moisture. It also an go into a water supply, where it can become runoff back into the ocean. It can evaporate from there also. Evaporation can also occur from the forest, and soil moisture. The ground water can be removed by extraction. Waste water discharge can also go back into a water supply or an ocean.

A diagram of the water cycle from greenfacts.org.

Water Use

There are eight categories, public supply, domestic use, irrigation, Thermometric power, Industrial use, mining, livestock, and agriculture. Public supply- This refers to water drawn from public and private water suppliers. For it to classify as public supply, it must supply at least 25 people, and a minimum of 15 connections to the supplier. Pools, parks, firefighting, water and wastewater treatments, and municipal buildings. Domestic water use- This includes indoor and outdoor uses at residences, uses such as drinking, food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes,toilets, lawns and gardens, and pools. Portable and non-portable water provided to households, or self-supplied water use. Self supplied use is withdrawn from wells, or collected rainwater. Irrigation- Irrigation water use includes water that is applied by an irrigation system to sustain plant growth. Used for pre-irrigation, frost protection,application of chemicals, weed control, field prep, crop cooling, harvesting, dust suppressing, and leaching salts. Irrigation of golf courses, cemeteries, and other self-supplied landscape use. Thermometric power- Water for thermometric power is used for generating electricity with steam-driven turbine generators. This includes fresh and saline water from surface water and ground water sources. Industrial use- This is withdraws that provide water for fabricating, processing, washing, processing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product. Mining use- Mining water use is water used for secondary oil or gas recovery. Livestock-This water use is associated livestock watering, feeding, dairy operation and other on-farm needs.

Demonstrations of multiple types of water use.

Water Quality

The definition of water quality is the measurement of the suitability of water for a particular use based on selected physical, chemical,and biological characteristics. Water quality can be measured in multiple ways: by measuring temperature of the water, acidity (pH), dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductance. Water quality standards are established to protect water for designated uses such as drinking, recreation, agricultural irrigation, and/or the protection of aquatic life. Natural processes that affect water quality include processes that implant foreign materials in groundwater, such as the filtration of natural waste and soil through the ground, into aquifers. Human processes such as industrial development, farming, mining, the combustion of fossil fuels, and other human activities can change the quality of natural water. Chemical analysis of water does not deem water safe, as it may not be safe to drink; bacteria and viruses still may be lurking in the water.

Water Properties

Water is a compound with each molecule being made up of three atoms (two separate elements): two hydrogen atoms, and 1 oxygen atom. Water had a density of 1 gram/cubic centimeter. Water has a boiling point of 212 degrees Fahrenheit and a freezing point of 32 degrees Fahrenheit. When water is at 30 to 60 degrees Celsius, water has 2 liquid states. Water is a polar molecule; a molecule that has a net dipole as a result of opposing charges. Water is a good polar solvent, and it can dissolve organic substances such as DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides.

The chemical composition of a water molecule.


Hydroelectricity is made by the moment of water. It is usually made with dams that block a river to make a reservoir or to collect water that is pumped there. When the water is released, the huge pressure behind the dam forces the water down pipes that lead to a turbine.

Demonstrations of Hydroelectricity.


Created with images by technicolor76 - "water drops" • Jaro Larnos - "Water" • wwarby - "Kitchen Tap" • DJ-Dwayne [Returning in 2015/16] - "Time For A Drink" • dimitrisvetsikas1969 - "pipe taps plumbing" • Smabs Sputzer - "Sewage Pipe"

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