Chapter 15 cassie carroll

IMPACT OF EINSTEIN's THEORY OF RELATIVITY: Albert Einstein created new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter. He theorized that the speed of light was constant & that pace and time would change when measured relative to an object moving near the speed of light. He also came up with the theory of relativity. He changed the way people viewed the world.

Influence of Freudian Psychology - Sigmund freud had some pretty revolutionary ideas himself. He made a theory about the human mind he that human behavior was irrational and beyond reason. He stated that the irrational part of the mind was "unconscious". His theories had developed widespread influence.

LITERATURE IN THE 1920s - Many writers and thinkers express their feelings threw creating scary visions of the present and future. T. S. Eliot wrote that western society had lost it spiritual values.

Writers Reflect Society's Concerns - Franz Kafka wrote eerie novels known as The Trial (1925) & The Castle (1926). They featured people who can neither understand nor escape. They came in an uneasy time. many novels supported the influence of Freud's theories. James Joyce wrote a book called Ulysses based on a day of three people Joyce made a bold attempt to mirror the workings of the human mind

Thinkers React to Uncertainties - people started to turn to a philosophy known as existentialism. A major leader of this movement was Jean Paul. Existentialists believe that there is no universal meaning of life. Each person creates their own reason to live and make their own choices. The existentialists were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche. He wrote about ideas like reason, democracy, and progress had stifled people's creativity and actions. He want to return to ancient heroic values of pride, assertiveness , and strength. His ideas impacted politics in Italy and Germany in the 1920s and 1930s.

REVOLUTION IN THE ARTS - Artists Rebel Against Tradition - Artist began to rebel against realistic style painters like Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky use bright bold colors and distorted and exaggerated forms. Inspired by George Braque and Pablo Picasso. They founded Cubism an 1907. Cubism transformed natural shapes into different into geometric forms. SURREALISM - an art movement that sought to link the world of dreams with real life inspired by Freud's ideas.

Surreal mean "beyond or above reality" Many of the Surrealists paintings have an eerie, dreamlike quality and depict in unrealistic ideas

Composers try new styles - Composers moved away from traditional styles. Igor Stravinsky used irregular rhythms ans dissonances or harsh combinations of sound. Arnold Schoenberg rejected traditional harmonies and muscle scales. Jazz became popular in the United States. it was developed by mainly african americans. it swept threw the united states and Europe.

SOCIETY CHALLENGES CONVENTION - Women's Role Change - New ideas came about and young people were more willing to take in new ideas. The war gave women new roles. Women changed their clothes and hair. They also wore make-up, drove, drank, and smoked in public. Women got new careers in medicine, education, journalism, and other professions. Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman risked getting arrested by speaking out in favor of birth control. Women spoke out about needing more freedom in their lives.

Technological Advances Improve Life - Doctors had brought up new medicines and medical treatments. The war had new technological advances that helped with transportation and communication.

The Automobile Alters Society - Cars were now sleek and brightly polished. In britain cars were only owned by rich people. British factories produced 34,000 autos in 1913. After the war middle class were able to afford cars. Then the british were making 511,000 cars a year. Auto sells increased because people traveled more for fun. The auto also affected where people lived, people moved to the cities.

AIRPLANES TRANSFORM TRAVEL - Two British pilots made it across the Atlantic. Charles Lindbergh got everyone attention in a 33hr solo flight from New York to Paris. At first only rich people could ride planes.

Radio and Movies Dominate Popular Entertainment - The first successful experiments with radio ws in 1895. in 1920 the world had its first radio channel. Soon every major city had channels. Motion picture started in the 1920s as well. In the late 1920s they put sound into movies. The United states became very dependent on these.

A WORLD WIDE DEPRESSION - Postwar Europe - Unstable New Democracies - New democracies form. From 1914 to 1918, Europe's last absolute rulers had been overthrown. The first new government was in russia for democratic rule, it failed. When no single party won a majority, a coalition government, or a temporary alliance was needed.

The Weimar Republic - germany's new democratic government was known as Weimar Republic. First germany lacked a strong democratic tradition. Second, Postwar germany had several major political parties and many minor ones. Worst, millions of germans blamed the government for the country's defeat.

Germany had not greatly increased its wartime taxes. The germans just printed money to pay off the war. Soon the money lost is value. sever inflation set in. Germans needed more money so they could buy what they needed. People took wheelbarrows of money just to buy food.

Attempts at Economic Stability - Germany recovered thanks to a committee runned by Charles Dawes. He provided 200 million dollars in a loan. It stabilized the banks. German got more loans and investments from the United States. By 1929 factories were producing as much as they were before the work.

Efforts at a long lasting peace - Germany tried to improve relations with other countries. Switzerland, Belgium. Italy, and Britain signed a treaty stating that germany and france would never go to war against one another again. As well as promising to respect the borders of France and Belgium. Kell-Briand stated a peace act with frances briand.

Financial collapse - In 1929 the worlds economic system collapsed.

A flawed U.S. economy - By 1929 Americas factories were making nearly half the world industrial goods. 60 percent of all americans earned less than 2,000$ a year. Most families were poor and couldn't buy goods so factories had o cut back product and lay people off. Over production affected farmers as well. New equipment created more crop. As a result price on crop went down. Many farmers could not pay off loans because didn't make enough.

The Stock Market Crashes - People started paying a small percentage of the stocks price as a down payment. Investors soon had no money to pay off loans. In September 1929 investors make stock prices high. then in october made tem low again. Everyone wanted to sale and not buy. A record 16 million stocks were sold on October 29 & the stock markets collapsed.

THE GREAT DEPRESSION - People could not pay the money they owed. stocks prices were now worthless. Everything went up and wages declined. A long business slump call the GREAT DEPRESSION. The quick collapse of the economy caused the great depression

A global depression - The collapse of the American economy sent wave threw the entire world. The american market in Europe dropped as well. America had to withdraw money from Europe. Many countries that were supported by American goods suffered.

Effects throughout the world - Germany and Austria were hit hard. Austria's largest bank failed. In Asia both farmers and urbans suffered because their exports fell by half. Prices collapsed.

The world Confronts the crisis - The depression confronted democracies with a serious challenge to their economic and political systems. Each country met the crisis in its own way.

Britain takes steps to improve its economy - The depression hit Britain severely. They passed high protective tariffs, increased taxes, and regulated the currency. Its lowered interest rates o encourage industrial growth. It had a steady recovery. By 1937 unemployment had been cut in half.

France Responds to economic crisis - France had a more self sufficient economy, In 1930 it still had plenty of agriculture and was less dependent on trade. One million french workers were unemployed in 1935 nevertheless. In 1933 five coalition government formed and fell. The popular front was formed and passed a series of reforms to help help the workers. It failed.

Socialist Governments Find Solutions - The socialist governments in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway also met the challenge of economic crisis. In sweden. the government sponsored massive public works projects the kept people employed and producing. They raised pensions for elderly and increased unemployment insurance, subsidies for housing, and other welfare benefits.Governments taxed all citizens to pay for these benefits.

Recovery in the united states - Franklin Roosevelt was elected president and bega a program of government reform call the New Deal. It provided jobs. New government agencies gave financial help to businesses and farms. Public money was spent on welfare and relief programs. Regulations were imposed the stock market and the banking system. The new deal did eventually reform the American economic system.

Fascism Rises IN Europe - Fascism Rise in Italy - FASCISM was a new militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Fascists believed a nation must struggle and those who didn't were doomed. They wore a uniforms of a certain color, used special salutes, and held mass rallies. Fascism was similar to communism. Both were ruled by dictators, no individual rights, the state was supreme, didn't believe in democracy, each class has a place and a function. made u of aristocrats and industrialists.

Mussolini Takes control - Rising inflation and unemployment contributed to widespread social unrest. They wanted a leader to take action. Benito Mussolini boldly promised to rescue italy by reviving the economy and rebuilding the military. He promised strong leadership. He soon founded the fascist party. He criticized Italy's government and groups of fascist attacked Communist and socialists. He began to win support from the middle classes. in October 1922 nearly 30,000 Fascists marched on rome. They demanded the king to put mussolini in power. He agreed.

II Duces leadership -

Credits:

Created with images by DonkeyHotey - "Albert Einstein - Caricature" • Mister-Mastro - "Outer_Space Grape" • wayseeker2000 - "Writing" • inacentaurdump - "the persistence of feste" • skeeze - "louise brooks american female" • sigmama - "airplane" • MorboKat - "Stock Photography - Canadian Coins" • buckle1535 - "Great Depression" • Mr Moss - "Hitler"

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