Africa: Past and Present By: Lanie Nicholson & Ellie waldron

Natural Resources

Two of the most valuable natural resources that Sub-Saharan Africa have are gold and diamonds. Sub-Saharan Africa produces nearly half of the world's gold. Also, out of the 130 million carats of gold mined per year in the world, they produce about 65% of it.

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Land Use

*Subsistence Farming is the main was people use the land in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since the farmers are only producing enough crops for themselves, they don't have enough to sell to make any income off of it. Hint - *Subsistence Farming: farmers grow food for their families, Commercial Farming: large-scale farming for profit

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Democratic Public of Congo

The Democratic Public of Congo is possibly one of the poorest countries in Africa. Their main minerals that they have are the three T's: Tin, Tantalum, and Tungsten. These minerals are used to make electronic devices, which are in high demand all around the world. All of these mines are controlled by armed rebel groups. These rebel groups force people to work. They then smuggle and sell the minerals. With the money they make, they buy more weapons. This is how they stay in control.

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GDP Per Capita

The five nations with the highest GDP Per Capitas are: 1.) Mauritius - $12,800, 2.) South Africa - $11,100, 3.) Botswana - $9,200, 4.) Seychelles - $7,800, 5.) Namibia - $7,300.

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16 nations have a GDP Per Capita below $1,000.

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A couple of things that the 5 nations with the highest GDP Per Capita have vs the nations with GDP Per Capitas less than $1000 are: 1.) Better Technology, and 2.) Better Education.

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Life Expectancy

Of the 31 countries with the lowest life expectancy's, 28 of them are from Sub-Saharan Africa. The main reason for this is HIV/AIDS. About 23.8 million people from Sub-Saharan Africa have this disease.

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Three Kingdoms of West Africa

The three West African Kingdoms were Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Ghana was in power from 800-1054 CE. Mali was in power from 1200-1400 CE. Songhai was in power from 1350-1600 CE.

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The trade network that the three West African Kingdoms participated in was the Trans-Saharan Trade Network.

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The two commodities that were traded in the Trans-Saharan Trade Network were salt and gold. The West Africans brought gold and the North Africans brought salt.

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Slaves on the Trans-Saharan Network

North African Muslim tribes traded for African slaves because in the Koran, it says that one Muslim cannot enslave another Muslim. Muslims and African slave traders primarily used slaves to serve in the military. Muslim and African enslavement of Africans was different from European enslavement of Africans because Muslims gave their slaves more freedom. They could own their own property, have their own slaves, and even be generals in the army!

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King Mansa Musa and Timbuktu

Mansa Musa was the king of Mali. He was estimated to have $400 billion. Mansa Musa went on his hajj trip to Mecca during the years 1324-1325. On his trip, he brought 60,000 people, 80 camels carrying 300 pounds of gold each, 500 slaves each carrying a 4 pound gold staff, and his wife with 500 attendants. He gave away tons of gold in Mecca. When he came back from his trip, he brought Muslim scholars and architects to build cities, mosques, and schools in Timbuktu. Timbuktu was the center of Islamic learning. You could study religion, math, music, law, or literature in this city.

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Ibn Battuta: Explorer

Ibn Battuta was 21 years old when he began his travels. He set out from Tangier, Morocco. He traveled about 75,000 miles total over Asia and Africa. Ibn spent 29 years exploring. He stopped his travels in Fez, Morocco. When he was done traveling and exploring, he started to write his book, A Gift to the Observers Concerning the Curiosities of the Cities and the Marvels Encountered in Travels. Ibn Battuta later died in 1368 when he was 64 years old.

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