An Ancient Pit Stop
As the idea of transporte developed, people first began to ver Spain's true potential. People realized Spain was a great place to repostar and reparar their ships and trade. This was the beginning, of the ongoing battles to take over Spain.
Celtas vs Iberia
The Celtas were the first civilización to take over Spain, before then no one owned the land. After they tomó control of the occidental part of Spain, the Iberos soon took control of the oriental part of Spain. The two groups eventually combined forming the Celtiberos, and together they took over the middle part of Spain.
The Romans are Coming
The Celtas and Iberos were not the only ones who wanted Spain. The Romans were easily able to take control of Spain, but in 409 A.D. there large empire collapsed. The two major things the Romans left behind were the Segovia Aqueduct and the Merida Columns, where gladiators used to fight wild animals.
More Invaders on Their Way
Now the Germans come into the picture, from the Kingdom of the Visigoths. They utilizar the same method as everyone else when they inhabit the land - quemar, matar, and acero. After them, in 711 A.D., the Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians from North Africa invade. The three groups easily defeat the Kingdom of the Visigoths and conquered most of the peninsula.
During this time, Christians, who controlled south, the started a war with the Musulmanes, who owned the north part of Spain. Each group tried to get the other to convertir, but once someone converted, there was no one to stop them from going back to their old religion. El Cid became known as the hero of the La Reconquista, because of his bravery as he led the Christians to victory.
Toledo was a safe place, where Judíos, Muslims, and Cristianos all got along peacefully. Each religion can be shown through all of the beautiful Synagogues, Arab style architecture, Churches, and Cathedrals.
The Spanish Inquisition
In 1469, King Fernando of Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castilla were married and united their kingdoms against the Moors. In 1492, they killed last Moorish King, in Granada and ended La Reconquista. All muslims and Jews in Spain were forced convert to Christianity or leave. After they would convert, the government would tortura and interrogar them to make sure they truly converted. In some cases people were quemado alive in front of groups of people, to show the consecuencias of not being Christian. If you did not support the war or the punishments, you were seen as a devil worshiper.
Nowadays, we think of buscadores de oro, as people who fingir to like someone just for there money, but in the early days of Spain, people also did it as a way to gain power. One gold digger was Juana, the daughter of Fernando and Isabel, also known as "La Loca" ("The Crazy"). She married King Felipe from the powerful Habsburg family.
After both King Fernando and Queen Juana died, their son, Carlos I, came into power. When he became the Holy Roman Emperor, he cambiado his name to Charles V of Austria/Germany, so he could secretly expand his empire, without giving his victims time to prepare. Not only was he able to spread his empire, but under his rule, oro, plata, maíz, papas, and frutas flooded in from the Americas. He used the funds from the colonies, to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. Because of this he became know as the Guerrero del Camino ("Road Warrior").
Felipe II : Family Fued
Carlos I pasado the throne down to his son, Felipe II, who passed the wars against the protestants. In 1554, Carlos I casado Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic alianza. When they were unable to have a son to rule England, the protestant Elizabeth I came to power. During her rule, she anexo Portugal, the Dutch declarado independence from Spain, and she declared war on Spain. In 1588, England defeated Spain. In 1598, Felipe II died at his palace called El Escorial, in his bed overlooking the Basilica altar.
El Greco is a painter from Greece, whose real name is Domenikos Theotokopoulos. He took a journey to Spain, because he wanted to paint a picture of Felipe II's palace, El Escorial. However, when he got to Spain Felipe II refused to contratar him, because he hated his estilo. After he was rejected, he moved to Toledo, where he became rich by selling paintings that made fun of the king. His most famous painting was Vista De Toledo.
The End of the Habsburg Kings
After Felipe II died his son Felipe III becomes king and when Felipe the III dies, his son Felipe IV comes into power. Felipe IV rules Spain during the the Siglo de Oro time period, when literature, drama, and art prospered. Some of the most famous things from this time were La vida es sueño by Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, and the character Don Juan, the "Latin Lover" Spain became very wealthy during this time period. Afterwards, Felipe IV passed on the throne to his son, Carlos II, also known as “El Hechizado” (The Bewitched). He died in 1700, leaving no heredero to ascend to the throne of Spain and ending the line of Habsburgs. Because their was no one to take the throne, royal families from other nations started a war, to decide who would take over Spain. In 1773 the war ends and Felipe V, the Bourbon grandson of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family goal was to convert Spain into a modern state and promote the Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment. Because they were to concerned about life in the court, they failed to convert Spain. The Bourbon family is still the royal family of Spain in present day.
Carlos IV was the grandson of Felipe V. He had total incompetence and used lots of dynamite, because of dealing with Napoleon.
On May 2, 1808 Madrid begins the War of Spanish Indepence. Then in 1812, Joseph Bonaparte was remoto from the throne. While the war was going on, most of the colonies in America were able to gain freedom. The war ends in 1812, when a constitution establishes a parliamentary monarchy.
When Fernando VII returns from exile in Spain, he becomes the next ruler. He always gets in fights liberals who wanted to expand on Constitution of 1812. In 1833 he died leaving the throne to his only daughter Isabel.
More Bourbon Troubles
When Fernando VII leaves the throne to his daughter, it divides the country in half. Half of the country doesn't want her to have power, because they pensan the throne should go to Fernando VII's brother, Carlos. Isabel ends up becoming queen and until she is removed during the "Glorious Revolution". Afterwards, King Amadeo de Saboya, an Italian, takes the throne from 1870-1873. Then in 1873, the first Spanish republic is proclaimed, but ends shortly after, in 1874,
Here We Go Again
The bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso Xll from 1875-1885, followed by his son Alfonso XllI from 1902-1931. Because Alfonso XIII, was shortly after his father's death, his mother took care of Spain, until he was old enough. 1898, Spain had lost most of its colonies and had lost embarrassing battles in Morocco. When Alfonso XIII is old enough to rule, he is unable to solve the political tension and creates a dictatorship from 1923 to 1931. When he realizes that a dictatorship is unable to solve the country's problems, elections are held to see if Spain should continue monarchy or give democracy another try.
Let's Try This Again
In 1931, the second Republic of Spain is established. With the new government style, comes a new constitution which gives women the right to vote, allows divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools.