Middle Ages Project Taylor bell



The basic government and society in Europe during the Middle Ages, was based around the feudal system. Small communities were created around the local lord and manor, where the lord owned land (and everything in it) by keeping peasants safe in return for their service, where the lord would in turn provide the king with soldiers or taxes. Under this system, land was granted to people for service.


The economic portion of feudalism was manoralism, where all aspects of life centered around the lord's manor. His estate included the village, church, farm land and the rest of the surrounding land. This system involved a hierarchy of obligations that traded labor or rents for land, which included the Lord of the Manir and his tenants. Tenants, who were paesants, were given the remainder of the land that was not the lord's and had the right to use the common land. Under the manorial system, each group in society had a place and certain rights and responsibilities
Division of manorial land.


Torture & Punishment

The iron chair.
The pear of anguish.
The breaking wheel.

There were different types of torture that depended on a person's crime and their social status. Torture and punishment were seen as justified means to extract confessions, obtain names or accomplices, or other information on a crime, but there were several occasions where the Church disapproved of this method of obtaining information. Prisoners were held in small, crowded torture chambers that held about 20 people in an 11 by 7 foot room. Some of the various types of torture included the pear of anguish, which mutilated victims, the breaking wheel, which broke the limbs of prisoners, and the iron chair, a seat that pierced victim's skin by sharp spikes.


The Crusades was a series of wars in which Christians tried to retake control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims. Jerusalem was an important site to many. For the Jews, it was the site of the original temple of God, for Muslims, it was the place where Muhammad ascended to heaven, and for Christians, it was where Christ was crucified and rose again. The battle for this land was between European armies, main,y consisting of the Roman Empire, and the Arabs that had control over Jerusalem. Through a period of 200 years, there were nine battles that took place: the First Crusade (1095- 1099), the Second Crusade (1147- 1149), the Third Crusade (1187- 1192), the Fourth Crusade (1202- 1204), the Children's Crusade (1212), and the Fifth to the Ninth Crusades (1217- 1272).

Health & Medicine

Giving herbal medicine to treat the sick.

Medicine during the medieval period was very basic and limited, especially with serious illnesses, like the Black Death, that killed a third of the population. The physicians during this time were clueless as to what caused diseases and illnesses, while the Catholic Church accepted the thought that they were punishments from God for sinful behavior. There were also no antibiotics, making it nearly impossible to cure any disease or illness without them, but they still tried to treat different illnesses with different types of medication. Most medication, though, was created from herbs, spices and resins and given through pills, drinks, washes, baths, rubs, and ointments.

Physicians during the Middle Ages often used leeching or bled out patients to get rid of "bad" blood.

Arts & Architecture

Architecture, during this time, largely consisted of the design and construction of churches, monasteries, castles, and similar eclectic structures. Homes and other types of buildings were given less attention. Art that was created usually depicted passionate interest and idealistic expression of the Christian and Catholic faith. Architectural designs and their interior decor showed expressions of the deep religious faith of the people of the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages had different divisions of art starting with the Byzantine period (330- 1453), then the Early Christian period (330- 880), followed by the Romanesque and Norman period (800- 1150) and lastly the Gothic period (1150- 1500).


Charlemagne, referred to as the father of Europe, was a medieval emperor who ruled much of Europe from 768- 814. In 771, he became king of the fpFranks and strived to unite all Germanic people into one kingdom and convert them to Christianity. To accomplish this goal, much of his reign consisted of the engagement in warfare. In 800, Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Romans, where he encouraged Carolingian Renaissance, a cultural and intellectual revival in Europe. After his death in 814, his empire rengukfed much of Western Europe and ensured the survival of Christianity in the West.

Land conquered by Charlemagne.

The Great Schism

Jerusalem during the Middle Ages.

After Emperor Constantine moved the capital of Rome to Byzantium, Germanic tribes invaded Europe shortly after. This resulted in the Western Church being based on Latin and the Eastern Church based on Greek. Eventually, there was a decline in literacy in the West, while the East had more universities and a literate populace due to Greek being a more flexible language. Also, as new people were evangelized in the West, they had to use Latin and looked to Rome for leadership. The East translated the Bible into the language of the people and later, became self-governing and independent from their mother church. The filioque controversy, the debate between the East and West on whether the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son or solely the Father, was the ultimate breaking point. The differences between the East and West caused a rift in the Church in 11 AD, leading to the creation of the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox Church.

The split between the Church.











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