Interwar Period By: liam poff

America

  • Black Tuesday, Oct. 29, 1929: because of speculation, stock market crashed plunging the nation into depression
  • Women start wearing hair and skirts shorter and start hanging in jazz clubs. The “Flappers”
  • Led by Hebert Hoover in the early stages of the depression years, later led by FDR.
  • New Deal: a series of reforms in an attempt to drag their country out of the depressionof the depression

England

  • Outdated factories and “replaced” as industrial leader by Japan and America
  • Ramsay MacDonald, leader of the Labour Party in the political arena
  • Easter Rising: revolt against their government in an attempt to gain independence but resulted in executions of many of the movements leaders
  • IRA terrorist group fights for their independence

France

  • Farmland as well as entire cities of the North lay in ruins as a result of the battles of WWI
  • Wartime alliance with Italy comes to an end
  • Spent large amount of money to fortify borders with the Maginot Line
  • Signed a mutual assistance treaty with Czechoslovakia and Poland

Germany

  • Leader known as der Fuhrer
  • Secretly began to rebuild and rearm the army
  • Nazi Party leader Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor & begins the Third Reich
  • The Weimar Republic was the federal government establish after the war, however it proved to be weak and ineffective
  • To help rid the country of the communist his party staged the burning of the Reichstag building and blamed the communist
  • Open violation of the Treaty of Versailles when he marched his troops into the Rhineland
  • The Beer Hall Putsch was an attempt to oust the government. The future leader of the country was involved and jailed for his involvement
  • His “Black Shirts” broke up strikes, intimidated workers, and drove elected socialist from office
  • In a book by the future leader of the country known as Mein Kampf, his racial superiority theory was laid out

Italy

  • Fascist leader known as Benito Mussolini, also known as Il Duce, rises to power
  • Symbol of country is Roman axe bundled tightly with rods
  • Youth followers, known as “Sons of the Wolf”

Soviet Union

  • New Economic Plan kept heavy industry, communications, transportation, and credit systems under government control
  • The 5-year plan resulted in decreased agricultural output and many starve
  • Vladimir Lenin rose to lead the country
  • Became a command economy in which government controlled all economic decisions
  • ALL religion was discouraged and in many cases banned all together
  • The death of Lenin led to a power struggle between Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Stalin will win the fight
  • The “purge” rid the country of party members suspected of being disloyal
  • Agriculture grouped to form collective farms and people worked together to bring in the crops using the scarce farm machinery
  • Had a five year plan to increase industrial, agricultural output and turn them into modern industrial giant
  • Million of citizens were sent to gulags which were brutal labor camps in the barren area known as Siberia
  • End all class division like Karl Marx

Germany and Italy

  • His inspired speeches led his people to believe they could be restored in their pride, power, and world status
  • Began Fascist doctrine that appealed to the upper and middle classes

Germany, Italy, England and France

  • The Locarno Pact in which a series of treaties state problems will be solved peacefully, and guaranteed existing boundaries between France and Germanys

Germany, Italy, and Soviet Union

  • Violence plays major role in politics
  • One person controls country
  • No concern for human rights

All countries

  • Some look to science to help support disillusion with the world
  • Movies become big entertainment
  • Three waves of the influenza pandemic hit
  • Many people feel increasingly fearful of the unpredictable world
  • Post war prosperity crashes
  • People in early post war era live for the moment, not planning on future

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