The Sand Creek Massacre, 1864
Colonel John Chivington was an unseuccessful leader until he planned and engaged in this act. He saw his chance to score a bid victory against the Cheyenne. On November 29, his force of 700 men went to encamped Cheyenne. Chivington's men killed between 150 and 599 people. Mostly women and children were killed. The next year the Cheyenne agreed to move to reservations.
The Battle of Little Bighorn, 1876
The Battle of Little Bighorn is also known as Custer's Last Stand. It was fought over the Black Hills. The US believed that there was gold on the hills and planned to move the Indians out. Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were two Sioux chiefs that did not sign the Fort Laramie treaty that created a large reservation to end a war previously.
In 1876, Custer was sent to round up the Indians that had left. When he found the IndianS, they had 2,000 warriors. Custer was unprepared and split his forces because he was expecting a smaller enemy. They took more than 200 of Custer's men in an hour.
The army flooded in soon after. Crazy Horse was killed after surrendering in 1877. Sitting Bull escaped to Canada. Starvation forced them to return to the reservation and surrender four years after.
Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890
Indians began to do rituals called ghost dances. To do a ghost dance, people joined hands and whirled in a circle. This was believed to promise to return to traditional life. The ghost dances were encouraged by Sitting Bull. Word spread that the Indians were become restless in the reservations and they wired the army informing them that they needed protection.
To try to calm the crisis, Indian police officers tried to arrest Sitting Bull. After he resisted, they shot and killed him. 120 men and 230 women and children surrendered near a creek called Wounded Knee.
While they were being disarmed, a shot was firing creating chaos. Soldiers began open fire. This killed more than 200 Sioux. The massacre at Wounded Knee was the last major violence of the Indian wars.