Cairo,Egypt The amazing Sahara land

Created by Rahul Rajesh


Many people living in Africa do not have sufficient food for them to survive. Not only this, but there is many water problems such as water scarcity and water pollution. This is not a good thing because many people have to travel far distances just to get a few amount of food and water. Also, because many people don't have lots of food or water, many of the kids have to skip school so that they can go and get water for their family. Also, many people are poor so there are many financial challenges. This may allow individuals not to have a meal. When on a global basis environmental concern which is water pollution and water scarcity can greatly change everything. Also, food can lead to malnutrition that can finally lead to DEATH!!!!!!!!!


For this quarters science part of the PBL project, we had to grow a radish. We were growing radishes because we had noticed that around the world and in many of the states, there are many food problems. When we noticed it, we decided to see if we can maintain the radish and see if it is easy to be grow. We were doing it because we wanted to see how much time it will be taking us to be growing the radish itself. Surprisingly, it was a hard process. The main part was that we wanted to see if we grow it, what is the sunlight needed, how to grow it and if it is quite easy to grow it. We were also doing it because we wanted to see what is the best light for us to be growing the radishes in.It may seem easy, but it was not. We learned a lot from it.

So there were many challenges that we faced when we were making this whole entire experiment come true. First mistake was that when we first got the plants, it was supposed to be germinated. Unfourtunately, it was not germinated. Because of this, we had to water it once and we were waiting until the plant got germinated. Problem with us waiting was that we had to wait a long time for the plants to be germinated. Some groups germinated very fast while others germinated at most in 2 weeks. Next challenge that we faced was the part of watering the plants. We noticed that the plats were growing good so most everyone had given the plants lots of water. Problem with lots of water is that it can start to make the plant wilt. Many plants though grew for like 6 days with a good growth record and then started decreasing. We thought that the plants were dying, but really it happens when the plant gets way to heavy.

Another challenge that we faced was the thanksgiving break. Because the plants took a long time to germinate, we started a little later. Because of that, most the plants still had to be watered in thanksgiving break. Problem is that first of all, the amount of water that some of the teachers gave our plants was not recorded and the second problem was that it was watered twice for the whole week that we were gone for. Because of that when we came back, most of the plants actually died with the stem breaking and basically having no more radishes. Another challenge that we faced was that we had placed the plants in different light bulbs. The group of plants next to the door had used red light. Problem is that out of the 3 teams in 7th grade, there class actually grew the most. Our experiment went wrong because we believe that those plants were getting extra white light from outside when the people opened the door. These challenges made it very hard for us to be growing these radishes.

From this lesson, we learned that it is very hard to be growing these radishes. When you have to grow fruits or vegetables or anything, you need to be taking great care of that crop. Spend time almost everyday giving the crop a good amount of water, not too less or too much. Also, make sure that the water amount is consistent. Make sure that the plant gets a good amount of sunlight. It was very hard because there were many things that went wrong for us like the wrong seed, wrong amount of light, wrong amount of water and many more. Planting a garden takes precision and timing. This will relate to local and global food shortages because if people who are facing food problems learn how to properly farm and grow crops, they can finally get some food to eat and they can sell some remaining crops as a cash crop. Growing a garden can change a lot for food problems.

Picture of plant (NOT DOING GOOD!!!!!)

In this whole entire huge experiment, I learned many things. Photosynthesis is the way that the plants make food. This whole entire starts with the raw energy, which is carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide enters through the stomata and it is formed when the animals and humans breathe out the air. Also, the water enters the plant through the roots. A major part of photosynthesis is the sunlight. To be making the food, you need sunlight. The sunlight reflects from the chloroplast. The green color reflects of the chloroplast, which contains the chlorophyll. This is quite important because this helps make food for the plant to be using. The product of this is creating oxygen and also glucose. The oxygen is used for animals and humans to breathe.

For the next question, I did find a relationship between the amount of water and also the plant growth. We noticed that if you gave your plant too little water, it started to start wilting. We also noticed that if you give the plant too much water, the plant started to bend and then it started to die. This is very important because the amount of water can make a very big difference when you are planting a garden. The wrong amount of water can change everything and you can be wasting lots of money to build a garden that dies. This is why taking care of plants by putting a right amount of water is good. That is why it is important to be putting a right amount of water.

For the last question to answer, yes I did find a relationship between the light and the plant. We figured out that best light color was supposed to be red and blue. Problem is that when we actually did the experiment, the white light has the best product. Really, they started kind of late and the class who has the plants under the white bulb started one week before most of the other classes. We learned from the experiment that the plants under blue and red were expected to be grown the most and have the biggest radish. When we did the experiment, we noticed that the plants under the green bulb light died very fast and did not do that well. From this whole entire experiment, we learned that the different light bulbs gave different results for the growth of the plant.


So basically this whole entire project started for us by us going outside and measuring the garden which we have in the school. When we were doing this, we were trying to figure out if the people of Africa and other countries which are facing food shortages can use this method known and farming and to be growing their own food. Once we measured the garden, we got a math packet. The math packet was there because that is what we used to be figuring out how much material we needed for one of our planters which we are growing radishes and also the cost.Theen we figured out the cost of growing a garden and we figured out the cost of it in Sahel and countries in Africa. We also used the packet to list out the different materials that was needed to be growing a garden.

We did many different types of math problems in this PBL project. For example, we had to figure out the unit rate of an item. If for example, a pack of 50 seeds may cost $3.97. We did unit rate and figured out how much one seed costs. Also, we had to use diameter and radius to be figuring out the circumference of the garden that was in a circular shape. There were many math topics in this one little project. I discovered that building a garden requires lots of time and energy. Also, there are many items that you need and it costs quite a lot of money to be making a garden. As though it costs a lot of money, the garden will provide lost of food for people to be eating. So to answer our driving question, how can we as CMS students demonstrate how to solve food challenges in our local and global communities, I figured out that we can help teach people how to farm and that we can help support them by providing some materials so that if they do learn, they can live a better life instead of living in hunger.

Garden map!!!


While flying above Africa on a grand tour, my friends and I were busy playing in the kings cup, practicing for the actual kings cup with the best gamers in Los Angles. When flying over Africa, our pilot was too busy looking at the scores for soccer game that his hand left the handle bar. Without even noticing, our plane started drifting downwards and we crashed on the ground. When we crashed into the ground, everything in our plane had totally died but the location grid. When I looked at it, our coordinate was 30.04N latitude and 31.23E longitude. When looking around, I had noticed that we had landed in Egypt. EYGYPT!!!!!!!!!! Based on the coordinates, I later learned that we were in Cairo. Cairo is the capital of Egypt. Also, Egypt is located in the Sahara, which is a huge desert. When spending time there, we started to get hungry. As we walked around, we noticed many poor people not able to get any food. When looking at this, it made me feel sad because I never really thought how lucky we were to get food everyday. My crew and I had decided that we were going to help them. We will teach them the important plants and teach them farming so that they can live life like us.

A look at Egypt!!!!!!!!!

Ethnic Groups Encountered

In Egypt, there is one main ethnic group that you will find. They are the arabs. Arabic people live on the northern part of Africa. Some countries which is in the north is Sudan, Algeria, Libya and Egypt. This is not all of the countries that they are located in Africa and there are a lot more northern countries of Africa where they live in. Their main language is Arabic. The religion that they believe in is islam. Islam is a religion where they have a god named Allah and they also worship a prophet known as Mohammed. There are strict rules and laws that they have to follow and women's have a lot of strict laws that they have to follow. They use their holy book, Quran to help them live a good life. Their life begins when the arab people began to spread to North Africa in the late 600s AD. From North Arica, Arab traders came south of the Sahara desert for the gold and salt trade. Some of the customs an traditions that they do is that. Arabic is necessary if one was able to read the Quran. Also, they married local women and the process of blending cultures and religions began.

Islamic life


Many people living in Egypt are very poor. They do not have food that they can eat and they can not survive. When my plane crashed, I noticed that many people are facing food shortages and they can not maintain themselves to survive. That is why I have decided that if i can help give them crops and teach them how to farm it, they will not have to go through this hunger problem.

Crop#1= Eggplants

Although native to India, can be found in Egypt. Lots of good nutritional value!

Eggplants and Nutritional Value

Eggplants is a purple vegetable that is shaped like an eardrop. Eggplants are native to India, yet still it can grow in Egypt. There are many different eggplant varieties. Some of them can be big while other can be tiny and skinny. This eggplant has many nutritional values. It can provide fiber, folate, potassium and manganese, as well as vitamins C, K, and B6, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, niacin, magnesium, and pantothenic acid. This is very good because lots of different vitamins can be given to the people who eat eggplants. Also, the leaves and other stuff can be used for medicine to help throat and stomach troubles, asthma, skin diseases, rheumatism, inflammation, intestinal hemorrhages, foot pain, coughs, anorexia, and toothache. A very good help scientists found out was that part of the eggplant is very rare and that part can prevent cancer and heart disease. This is why eggplants have a bitter taste.

Growing Eggplants

Eggplants is a vegetable and needs lots of sunlight. It needs a full exposure to sunlight. This is a very good thing because the Sahara desert gets a lot of sunlight. The temperature can rise to a temperature of 177 degrees F. There is a lot of steps that is needed to plant the eggplants. First of all, it can grow in sandy soil. This is good because Egypt is located in the Sahara, which is just mainly desert.

So the first step is to plant the eggplant to be indoor or you can do nursery transplant before you plant it outside. Place 3-4 inch seeds about 24-30 inches apart. Take good care of the plant and make sure it stays in hot temperature. Next harvest it to 16-24 weeks when the skin is shiny and unwrinkled. Cut the fruit off of the stem and make sure that there is one inch left. Last step is that these eggplants can grow for 2 weeks in humid conditions no lower than 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The good thing about the desert is that the temperatures is really hot. As though the temperatures are very low during the daytime, the plant can maintain this. This is the growing process of an eggplant. What I learned from this is that crop rotation can be very helpful because it helps maintain the nutrients. Problem is that in the desert, the soil is not that good. Doing crop rotation will not really be good use for you because you will not necessarily be saving the nutrients. Substitence farming can be quite helpful. Subsistence farming is when you only grow enough so that you can feed your family. You will not really have a surplus amount so you can not really sell any for money. This farming method can be very helpful because lots of the people don't have food and growing it for yourself can really help you and the family stay alive.

Crop#2= Thyme

Thyme: A nutritional herb

Thyme and nutritional value

Thyme is a small, attractive herb which is very useful. There are more than 350 different species of thyme. They can be bushy or low growing and their leaves can be dark and pale green and some color like olives and also silver and brown. Thyme can be used as spices in food and it can also be used as medicine. It is used a lot in french foods and it helps give the food a different taste. The thyme is very easy to grow as it can grow in hot environments while being in rock cracks and inside of containers. It is a herb where it can also grow in snow and it wont really affect it. It can be used in soap, toothpaste, cosmetics, perfume, and antibacterial cream. It has lots of great uses such as mood-enhancing aromatherapy, repelling moths, ointments for fighting infections that are from the cuts and scrapes which people get when they fall down or hit something, and helpful medicines for sore throat. It is also used for bronchitis and upper throat problems.

As for the nutritional values, thyme is a good source of vitamin c (75% of daily needs), vitamin a(27%), fiber (16 %), riboflavin, iron (27%), copper, and manganese (24%), 11% in calcium and manganese, and vitamin B6, folate, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. This is very good because it helps gives us lots of vitamins. ( I got the vitamins on this site. The thyme is known from doctors and scientists that it can help with acne so the scientists and doctors are trying to add thyme in prescribed acne medications.

Growing Thyme

Thyme is a very interesting plant. It is a type of herb which means that it is used in foods as spice and other stuff. Also, thyme can be used as medicine. Because thyme is a plant, it needs sun. The good thing about thyme is that it can survive in the extreme heat of the sunlight or just part of the suns sunlight. Thyme can be grown in sandy soil. Sandy soil is very important to Egypt. Egypt is a country in North Africa that is located in the Sahara. The Sahara is a huge desert which is in many of the north african countries such as Egypt. This sahara is in whole Egypt so Egypt is covered in sand. The good thing about thyme is that it can grow in sandy soil, so that means that it can be grown in Egypt.

Before growing, you have to know that the seeds are very hard to grow because of slow germination. The better way to plant the thyme is to just by the plants or get some cuttings from a friend. If possible and you want a faster result, plant the thyme indoor for 6-10 weeks. Next step is that you have to plant it for 2-3 before the last spring snow frost. The soil should be 9 inches apart from each other and the best temperature for it is 70 degrees Fahrenheit. At the end, your plant should have grown 6-12 inches. Then your thyme is ready. So to take care of your plant, make sure that you water the plant. That will not be a problem in Cairo Egypt because it is right in the Nile River. The Nile River can provide a lot to these plants. If it gets very cold, you have to lightly put mulch around it when the ground freezes. The only 2 things that you have to worry about harming the thyme is gray mold and root rot. For harvesting and Soto ring the thyme, during summer you can just take the sprigs and leaves and it can be stored anytime that you want. If you want to dry the sprigs, hang it in a dry hot area where it is dark. Also, another way that you can harvest the thyme is by freezing it.

Environmental Concerns

So when you are planting all of these awesome crops, you do have to be aware of something. In Africa, there are many environmental issues. 4 of the important ones are deforestation, desertification, water pollution and water scarcity. All of these environmental problems are all connected. In Egypt though, since it is mainly desert, the two main important problems are water pollution and water scarcity. Egypt is mainly facing water pollution but that causes water scarcity. So water pollution is coming from vehicles, and other things that give of pollution. This pollution is going to be going towards the water and when it does come in the water, it will contaminate it. When it does contaminate the water you can not use the water cause it is unhealthy and you can die. Because of this, you will be getting water scarcity and that means that there will be limited water for people to be using.

Crop #3= Prickly Pear Cactus

Native desert plant!

Prickly Pear Cactus and informational value

Prickly pear can also be called cactus fruit. It is a sweet fruit that sometimes has a tar taste. It comes in colors ranging from pale green to a very bright red. It is found in Mexico and also United States. It can grow in the desert though. It consists of lots of minerals and also vitamins. Also, the cactus fruit contains a lot of fiber. The prickly pear contains 10 grams of proteins and also contains 5.4 grams of the fiber. It also contains lots of protein and less than a gram of fat. It is a very good thing to eat and it helps make the brain and cells and tissues work better. It is like a fuel for the cell, tissues and the brain. The prickly pear helps stop many diseases such as obesity, and different types of cancer. All of this information is based on the one cup serving.

For the vitamins, I thank because I copied their vitamins from the website because it was very helpful.Each serving of prickly pear provides small amounts of B-complex vitamins, a family of nutrients that help activate enzymes needed to derive energy from food. Prickly pear also provides a considerable amount of vitamin C. Each serving contains 21 milligrams, or approximately one-quarter of the vitamin C intake recommendations for men and slightly less than one-third for women, according to the Institute of Medicine. Vitamin C provides tissue strength by boosting your body's collagen levels, and it also helps your body absorb and use iron.

For the minerals that the prickly pear can provide us, it can give us 13% of your daily need of copper. Also, one serving of the prickly pear gives 40% intake of magnesium for women and 30% of magnesium intake for the men. Magnesium is very helpful because it is key to helping out enzymes, which is the protein that helps produce the chemical reactions. The magnesium helps the cells function. Meanwhile, the copper can help aid in red blood cell growth and also it supports your immune system. Also, the prickly pear can give us small amounts of potassium and clacium. A good website for more information about the nutritional facts is It is very good and it explains in depth.

Growing Prickly Pear

They are found in South and Centeral and North America. As though they are mainly grown in the sandy type of soil, it can be grown in variety of different soil. So the first step of growing the prickly pear is to by the seed. Once you did that, prepare a garden pot to place the seed it. Make sure that the garden pot is quite big so there would be lots of space for the prickly pear to be growing. Cover the bottom of the pot with rocks. If you do this, it will be easier for the water to be draining out. Put half sand inside of the pot and also half of the pot should be having the soil in it. Once you are done with that, you can move on to the next step. The next step is to plant the seed into the pot. Leave it on top of the soil and gently push it down a little but into the soil. Add small amounts of water. You do not want it to be wet, you only want it to be moist. The next step is to keep the plants in a shady place. They do need sunlight and they can get lost of sunlight, but they do not need direct amount of sunlight like what many of the other plants need. It might take some time for the plant to germinate, and grow but it will be good and tasty to eat.

Crop rotation

So using crop rotation is a good thing. Crop rotation is when you switch the crops so that you can conserve the the nutrients that are in the crops. It helps to stop the erosion and also, it gives the soil the nutrients so that when you plant the plant again, the soil will have enough nutrients to be giving the plants. When different crops are planted, different nutrients are given to the new plant so it doesn't get the same nutrients. When plants are given the same nutrients, it will not become healthy and will lose those nutrients causing it to die.


Works Cited

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@almanac. "Thyme." Old Farmer's Almanac. Old Fathers Almanac, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016. <>.

Davilla, Jaime. Desert Picture in Egypt. Digital image. A Visit to the Sahara Desert Again (this Time in Egypt) in Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Egypt Image. Digital image. Http:// Tala Tours International, n.d. Web. Nov.-Dec. 2016.

H, Claire. Egypt Image Map. Digital image. The Sahara Desert of Egypt. Google Slides, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Mercolla, Dr. Eggplants. Digital image. What Are Eggplants Good for. Food Facts, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Mercolo, Joseph. "What Is Thyme Good For? -" Joseph Mercola, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016. <>.

"Prickly Pear Health Benefits." Healthy Eating | SF Gate. Healthy Eating, n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2016. <>.

"Prickly Pear Nutritional Values." LIVESTRONG.COM. Leaf Group, 18 Dec. 2013. Web. 13 Dec. 2016. <>.

Tdubell. "Grow Prickly Pears." 3 Ways to Grow Prickly Pears - WikiHow. Wiki How, 14 Dec. 2016. Web. 13 Dec. 2016. <>.

Thyme. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2016. <>.

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