G: General Display Guidelines Rules for Developing Projected Messages

G1. Screen display should follow the horizontal-vertical and left-right organization that is common to the culture of the intended audience (typically left-to-right, up-to-down in American public school culture)

G2. If needed, write short clear headline that explain or label the main idea on sections of related slides (see G3 for more details about this), OR create intro slides that communicate the theme or message of subsequent slides

G3. Titles and headers should be worded as conclusions (main points of the slide) rather than statements about the topics or categories of information presented with the slide

G4. Break up “story” into digestible bites [Use Slide Sorter in PowerPoint to help you easily “see” if the slides, in general, look more visual than textual]

G5. Reduce visual load by moving text off-screen and narrating the content

G6. Use visuals with words, instead of just words

G7: When possible, visuals should be used to help elicit an emotional response from those viewing the material.

G8. Remove every element that does not support main idea

G9. Attention should be drawn to those parts of a message intended to stand in contrast to other screen elements.

Contrasts used to draw attention should be abrupt, using one or more of the following display characteristics:

G10. Messages should not be obscured by too much non-critical detail. The universal rule of design should generally apply: KEEP IT SIMPLE

One strategy for “keeping it simple” is to limit the amount of text on the screen. This can be accomplished by bulleting key ideas, not entire sentences:

But it can be even better:

G11. Avoid backgrounds that fade from dark to light across the entire slide OR presents a picture or pattern with very distinct light and dark regions.

References for entire "Projected Message Display" rule set:

Clark, R. and Mayer, R. (2011). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer Publishing

Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Dryden Press.

Fleming, M. & Levie, W.H. (Eds.). (1993). Instructional message design: Principles from the behavioral and cognitive sciences. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mayer, R. E. (Ed.). (2005). The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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