Coniferous Forest finland

Climate of the Forest in Finland

Rainfall- Min: .9 inches, Max: 2.6 inches, Average: 1.4 inches

Temperature- Min: -1.2 F, Max: 68 F, Average: 35.6 F

The coniferous forests of Finland are most found in the northernmost region of the country known as Lapland. These forests do not receive much precipitation, however when they do, it is most likely snow. It has moderate summers, staying within the mid to high 50s F, however the winters are long and cold, getting as low as -1.2 F.

Net Primary Productivity

Coniferous forests have a lower net primary productivity (3500 kilocalories/square meter/year) compared to other biomes such as estuaries and tropical rain forests (9000 kilocalories/square meter/year). This is due to the very minimal amount of frost free nights (less than 120) during the growing season, which is the equivalent amount as deserts and tundras. However coniferous forests' lack of kilocalories/square meter is contributed to the biome's close location to the arctic circle.

Soil Quality

Soil quality of Finnish coniferous forests are rather poor because the top humus layer is low in organic compounds, mineral content, and has high populations of fungi and earthworms.

Invasive and Endangered Species

Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)

The sika deer has its origins in Southeast Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. Although populations of the deer are low in these nations (extinct in Korea), the sika deer has been purposely introduced globally during the mid 1900s, now spanning from Vietnam and Russia to New Zealand, Germany, and Finland. They are known for their velvet antlers, which have been used for medicinal purposes.

European Grey Wolf (Canis lupus lupus)

The European grey wolf, a cousin of the North American grey wolf, is found throughout Eastern Europe ranging from the Scandinavian countries to Russia. They are endangered due to the centuries of Overharvesting for their fur and also for a desire for their death. However, within recent decades, populations of the European grey wolf have increased with the shrinking of human pastoral societies, which have been the cause of their being hunted.

Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa)

Also known as the Lapland owl, the great grey owl is the world's largest owl. Because of its long claws and large facial disk (largest of any owl), the owls are able to hear from great distances, and also able to hunt its prey easily.

Ermine (Mustela erminea)

Also known as the stoat, the ermine is a small carnivorous mammal in the weasel family. Its long agile body and white fur help the ermine camouflage in the snow from its predators, and also stalk its prey.

Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx)

The Eurasian lynx is Lapland's biggest cat. Because of its large padded paws, the lynx is able to quietly stalk its prey and also quickly pounce. In recent years, due to hunting restrictions, population of the Eurasian lynx has greatly increased and has reached numbers around 2200 in Finland.

Plants in the Coniferous Biome

Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera)

An annual plant originating in the Himalayan Mountains, the Himalayan Balsam has been purposely introduced around the world because of its flowers. The plant's high nectar and seed count allows it to be more attractive to pollinators, thus beating out most indigenous plants.

Methuselah's Beard Lichen (Dolichousnea longissima)

The world's longest lichen, Methuselah's Beard, is a plant which clings to a host tree, most frequently spruce trees. Found throughout coniferous forests around the world, the lichen is threatened due to Habitat destruction from Finland's large timber industry.

Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

Although called the Norway spruce, this species of spruce is densely populated throughout Lapland. Due to its large pine cones (largest of any spruce) and fast growing nature, the Norway spruce is able to reproduce and populate very quickly.

Scots Pine (Pinus sylvelstris)

Common throughout most of Europe and the Eurasian region, the Scots pine is a popular conifer tree in the boreal forests. Because it thrives in poorer soils, the Scots pine lives well in Lapland's lesser quality soil.

Common Juniper (Juniperis communis)

One of the most populous conifer shrubs, the common juniper is found across the world. It grows best in temperate and colder climates, which is why it flourishes in Finland's Lapland. The berries are edible, however extremely bitter raw.

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