Scientific Knowledge: knowledge that is gained with the intension of coming to a conclusion or building on prior knowledge.
Theoretical Knowledge: Knowledge that teaches you the "why" of how something works.
How do we differentiate between the two?
Let's look at an example scenario...
Rob and Jack are best friends. They decide they want to learn how to rock climb, since they want to go on a rock climbing expedition.
Rob goes to the library, and reads every single book he can find about the basics of rock climbing, but he never physically goes rock climbing himself.
Jack, on the other hand, simply joins a class and practices a little each day after school.
What happens when they finally go rock climbing together on the mountain?