Blue Ringed Octopus Year 9 Marine ASSESSMENT

The map (above) shows blue dots representing the habitats and area where blue ringed octopuses are found. This map is supported by the fact that blue ringed octopuses live in coastal, tropical areas in small clusters, as seen in the map.

The blue-ringed octopus species live in tide pools and coral reefs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, from Japan to Australia. They mostly live in Southern New South Wales, South Australia, and Northern Western Australia. They are also one of the world's most dangerous marine animals. Despite them being small and relatively peaceful, they are dangerous to humans if annoyed and handled, because their venom is powerful enough to kill humans.

The bite of a Blue Ringed Octopus

The Blue-ringed octopus has noticeable blue rings on its body and on its eight tentacles. This is it's warning colouration, a noticeable warning of bright colours to warn organisms of its harmfulness, which it shows when attacked or threatened. The full warning display is bright yellow with blue rings or lines. It is only about 25 cm wide with the tentacles spread out. This creature may be small, but it is the most venomous octopus there is which is why people must take proper precautions to avoid contact with this creature.

The distinctive blue rings of the blue ringed octopus.

Most of the dangers that happen with this species can be avoided with proper caution and care of the environment the person is entering because their venom contains tetrodotoxin, a neurotoxin that is powerful enough to kill humans in 30 minutes, as seen in the image below, which makes then one of the most venomous species and the most deadly octopus. The bite of a blue ringed octopus is a medical emergency so do not wait for symptoms to start as a blue ringed octopus bite can kill a person in 30 minutes. Quickly get the person that has been out of the water, immobilise the affected area, and cover the wound and apply lots of pressure. Seek an ambulance if possible and consider transport to the nearest hospital.

A computer modeled image of the composition of Tetrodotoxin, the harmful, deadly toxins the octopuses have. Tetrodotoxin is also the venom that makes puffer fish so dangerous to eat.

Part 2

Image resources of the organism. It's distinctive blue rings can be seen clearly. The rings signifies the danger that can be encountered with this organism, the blue rings being a warning sign of it's toxin levels.

A picture reference of a Blue Ringed Octopus

The blue ringed octopus is usually a light brown colour but changed to a yellow-brown with blue rings when annoyed or threatened, as seen in the picture above. It can grow to a length of 20 cm when the tentacles are stretched out and weigh about 100 grams depending on the age and type, including the type of environment they are in.

The video above shows a blue ringed octopus as appeared in 'Deadly 60'

Using the video source above, it is clear, with evidence, that blue ringed octopuses are some of the most deadly, as well as primary sources of video wherein the octopus flashed it's warning colours to a 'predator,' being replicated by the pole of a fish net. This supports previous statements whereby the octopus's toxicity is further supported, as well as the fact of the anatomy and warning maneuvers. It also shows the shape of the octopus.

The 'head' of a blue ringed octopus is joined to eight muscular tentacles, partly connected with a skirt of skin that radiates out from the body and surrounds the mouth parts. The beak is one of the only 'hard part' of an octopus so they are able to squeeze through small crevices and gaps to avoid danger and cower away from predators as seen below.

Please note the video above is not that of a blue ringed octopus, although blue ringed octopuses share the same abilities.

The mantle or head of the octopus has inside it the organs and gills of the blue ringed octopus. Water flows in and out of the mantle or head as air is passed and pumped across the gills. Water is then forced out through the siphon or funnel to provide movement is the form of jet propulsion, as seen below in the diagram of the internal anatomy of the octopus. This diagram shows the anatomy of the octopus, which is a secondary source of evidence that supports the shape, anatomy, and some of the features that are capable with a body like this.

Picture reference of the internal anatomy of an octopus.

Each of the eight tentacle has two rows of white suckers on the inner surface that can move independently without affecting each other. The tentacles have extremely strong suction power, enough to open up shellfish and other shelled organisms. If a tentacle is damaged or broken off, it can be regrown again, without it being different to the original. an image of the suckers on a blue ringed octopus can be seen below.

A picture of a blue ringed octopus

Part 3:

'The venom of the blue ringed octopus may be lethal but the chances of being bitten by one are very rare. The only recorded incidents of fatalities occurred when the octopus was picked up and lifted out of the water.'-bobinoz.

As stated above, the only recorded fatalities occurred when the octopus was picked up. this being said, if the octopuses were not lifted out of the water, there would be not recorded fatalities. Blue ringed octopuses are not viscous creatures, octopuses are soft by design to be able to cower in crevices, as stated earlier. Their deadliness is purely from self defense from being threatened. as the video source earlier showed, the octopus did not flash warning colours until it was agitated or threatened. furthermore, the main solution to this problem is to stay away fro them do not prod or pick up objects or organisms regardless pf their looks, whether they are inanimate or not, be cautious.

Blue ring octopus in a ready, hunting position, using tentacles to search for prey

'These rather beautiful little gems are not recommended for aquarists as they are deadly. The blue ring produces two of the deadliest neurotoxins known to man. Either of which will render a fully-grown human being useless in approximately 10 minutes. An average sized BRO has enough toxins to kill 26 adults at once. The effects can be outlived however if the victim can be artificially resuscitated for 24 hours with no residual effects.'

In conclusion, the blue ringed octopus is in fact the only venomous octopuses known to man, making it one of the most deadly creatures in the world having enough toxin in it to kill 26 humans at any one time. this being said, they are not viscous to humans and their toxin release and bite are acts of self defense as stated with evidence previously. Currently, there are no antidotes for the venom of the octopus, however, with artificial breathing techniques due to paralysis of the diaphragm, the victim may be artificially resuscitated with no residual effects. there is no way to sustainably manage the encounters of blue ringed octopuses and humans, without closing off reef areas or removing the species from its natural habitat, both of which snot happen due to ethical decisions that must be made. the way to avoid blue ringed octopuses is to not pick up or touch objects when swimming in prone areas, do not pick up blue ringed octopuses, etc. the evidence to support this claim lies in the fact that the only two fatalities ever were due to touching and holding of blue ringed octopuses, by which the octopuses acted in self defense fro t he treat of being held.

Created By
William King
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Created with images by Angell Williams - "BXP47970" • Angell Williams - "BXP48010"

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