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Central Nervous System

The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. Functions of the brain include controlling our voluntary and bodily movements such as speech, memory, reflexes, etc. The spinal cord sends messages from the body to the brain and vice versa. The central nervous system responds to both internal and external environments and the body can change based on these responses. The central nervous system is basically the "control center" of the body where all of our fucntions come from the control of the central nervous system.

The CNS is comprised of the brain and spinal cord.

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System is all of the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. They work hand in hand with the central nervous system controlling the fucntions of the body. The Peripheral Nervous System had neurons that control the body's movement and motor coordination and the neurons also aid the body in reacting to internal and external environmental changes.

The PNS is a nervous system that does not include the brain and spinal cord.

Somatic Nervous System

The Somatic Nervous System involves voluntary responses that are under your control. Sensory neurons relay messages form the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the CNS, and motor neurons carry impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles. They also control your reflex movements. They connect the CNS to all parts of the body which allows for us to use voluntary movements given to us.

Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic Nervous System controls all the involuntary actions of the body such as digestion and heart rate. It consists of two other networks, the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems. Autonomic System also helps with reflexes for the body.

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

The sympathetic nervous system causes the reflexes in the body and is associated with the fight or flight response. The Parasympathetic slows down the body to save energy. Gives the body rest periods. An example of this is digestion.

Sensory Neuron

Receptors in the body that send messages back and forth with the central nervous system. They consist of a cell body, dendrites, and axons and when they receive a message they send them to the brain and spinal cord for the central nervous system to respond.


The interneurons communicate and connect with other neurons. It conveys messages between sensory and motor neurons which means that when a person reacts to the external or internal environment it used its sensory neurons and then motor neurons when the person does a voluntary reaction. This is all because the interneurons communicated with each other.

Motor Neuron

Just like the interneurons they carry messages from the CNS to muscles in response to reflexes. When a person uses their reflexes, very quickly a motor neuron sends a response to the muscle to react. They also control muscle contractions so when you get scared and your muscles tense up it is due to the motor neurons reacting to the outside environment.

Neuromuscular Junction

The function of the neuromuscular junction is it sends messages between motor neurons and skeletal neurons. The space between the two types of neurons is the synapse. They neuromuscular junction causes the muscle and skeletal neurons to work together and results in muscule contraction.


The fucntions of Acetylcholine is that it causes our muscles to contract and regulates our endocrine system. It is also a neurotransmitter and is used/takes place in both the central and Peripheral Nervous system. It is very important for motor fucntions and memory fucntions.

Norepinephrine and epinephrine

The fucntions of Norepinephrine and epinephrine include being the hormones released by the nervous system as well as the adrenal medulla during the fight or flight response. The fight or flight response is when the body senses danger or a nervous situation and releases hormones that make the body tense up and be ready for the next action. This is important in protecting the body and also provides adrenal that may make you feel adventourous and hyper.


At these synapses a neuron sends a message to a specific neuron. They send specific information from a cell to cell. This is important because if their is something happening in the external or internal environment these synapses communicate with each other and find a way to solve what ever is happening to the body.

White matter

White matter regulates the signals in the body. This is essential because these chemical signals alert the body of anything and everything that is happening internally and externally. They are a form of communication and they pass along important information that the body uses. It is seen in the brain and it controls how our brain function, learns, remembers things, etc. White matter disease is very dangerous because it can disrupt the mental process of people showing how important white matter really is.

Gray Matter

The Gray Matter controls all of the cognitive orders of the brain. It controls our learning, attention, memory, etc. The gray matter contains the dendrites, axons, and cell bodies. This is where all synapses occur. The also control a lot of our voluntary movements.

Cerebral Cortex

The Cerebral Cortex is a thin layer around the cerebrum. They control a person's personality, our motor fucntions, our sense (touch, smell, etc.). The cerebral cortex is what is said to make us human because it controls everything important with our motor fucntions, mental processing, etc. It contains our hemispheres which dictates our bodily fucntions.

Lobes of the Brain

Frontal Lobe: The Frontal Lobe functions include controlling speech, emotions, and problem-solving. It also controls voluntary movement, intellect and personality.

Parietal Lobe: The Parietal Lobe deals with the senses of the body. It reacts to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. And another function included with sensory information is the body position in space.

Occipital Lobe: The Occipital Lobe functions include controlling the sense of sight. It also processes the visual sights so that we understand what we're are looking at and can respond accordingly.

Temporal Lobe: The functions of the Temporal Love including sense of hearing, smell, memory, thought and judgment. Because of the temporal lobe we are able to understand language and are able to form sentences to speak.

Limbic System

The limbic system functions include emotions, memory, and instincts. They control our feelings, our well we remember things, and our instincts to act upon something. They are found within the cerebrum and the hippocampus which is apart of the limbic system is what helps us retain information and learn new things. The hypothalamus and thalamus help with emotions and brain functions.

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