Biogeochemical Cycles By: Dakota Edwards

The Water Cycle

The water cycle is a process where water is always flowing throughout the Earth and the atmosphere through evaporation, condensation, precipitation and transpiration.

Chemical reactions involved

Water is simply water the whole time throughout the water cycle but there are processes in the water cycle that have chemical reactions.

Photosynthesis- when plants blend organic compounds from CO2 and H20 using light energy.

6CO2 + 6H2O + (light) = C6H12O6 + 6O2

Organic and inorganic components

Water cycle is inorganic because it doesn't contain carbon.

Human Intervention

Humans can affect where the water supplies goes. Humans take out water and put it where it is needed.

The Carbon Cycle

The Carbon Cycle

Carbon is an element that is part of oceans, air, rocks, soil and all living things. Carbon is also always on the move and never in one place.

Chemical Reactions involved

Photosynthesis-when plants blend organic compounds from CO2 and H2O using light energy

Plant Respiration- occurs when plants use oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. result of this is the release of stored energy for use.

Metabolism-chemical processes that occur within a living organism to maintain life. Gives organisms energy to function.

Organic and Inorganic Components

Plants and animals are the organic components of the carbon cycle. Plants are eaten by animals which is an organic process.

Fossil fuels and energy that is being released from cars and factories are inorganic. These carbon gases can be very harmful to the environment.

Human Intervention

Humans burn fossil fuels to power factories, power plants, and cars. Most of the carbon from these quickly enter the atmosphere as CO2. Humans have burned so much fuel that there is about 30% more carbon dioxide in the air today than there was about 150 years ago.

Nitrogen Cycle

The Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is an essential component of DNA, RNA, and proteins a.k.a the building blocks of life. All organisms require nitrogen to live and grow. The nitrogen cycle is the movement of nitrogen through the atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

Chemical reactions involved

Five main processes cycle nitrogen through the biosphere, atmosphere, and geosphere. Nitrogen uptake organism growth, nitrogen mineralization through decay, nitrification and denitrification.

Nitrogen Fixation- where N2 is converted to ammonium or NH4. This is the only way that organisms can attain nitrogen directly from the atmosphere.

Nitrogen Uptake- when the ammonium is quickly taken up by a host plant or another soil organism and incorporated into proteins and other organic nitrogen compounds like DNA. NH4+→ Organic N

Nitrogen Mineralization- after nitrogen is incorporated into organic matter, it is often converted back into inorganic nitrogen by this process. Organic N → NH4+

Nitrification- when some of the ammonium produced by decomposition is converted to nitrate (NO3-). NH4+→NO3-

Denitrification- Anaerobic process that is carried out by denitrifying bacteria, which converted nitrate to dinitrogen in the following sequence: NO3- → NO2- → NO → N2O → N2

Organic and Inorganic Components

DNA, RNA, and proteins which are found in the body, are organic components. Bacteria is an organic component also that plays a major role in helping decompose materials using nitrates.

Human Intervention

Humans have become as important a source of fixed nitrogen as all natural sources combined. Burning fossil fuels, using synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, and cultivating legumes all fix nitrogen. Humans have more than doubled the amount of fixed nitrogen that is pumped into the biosphere every year.

The Phosphorous Cycle

The Phosphorous Cycle

The movement of phosphorous through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Important chemical for animals and plants and all living organisms. It makes up an important part of the framework that holds DNA and RNA together. Phosphates are also a critical component of ATP as they serve as an energy release for organisms to use in building proteins or contacting muscles.

Chemical Reactions involved

The phosphorous cycle differs from the other major biogeochemical cycles because it does not include a gas phase, although small amounts of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) may make their way into the atmosphere, contributing to acid rain.

Organic and inorganic components

Plants and animals that contain the phosphorous are classified as organic components. Phosphates that end up in the soil from decayed plants and animals can be considered inorganic.

Human intervention

Humans alter the phosphorous cycle in many ways, including in the cutting of tropical rain forests and through the use of agricultural fertilizers. As the forest is cut or burned, nutrients originally stored in plants and rocks are quickly washed away by heavy rains, causing the land to become unproductive.

SOurces

https://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercyclesummary.html

http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/co2_cycle.html

http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Earth-Science/6/The-Nitrogen-Cycle/98

https://enviroliteracy.org/air-climate-weather/biogeochemical-cycles/phosphorus-cycle/

Credits:

Created with images by Jake Cook - "Candy Floss Clouds. (B+W Version)" • Jan-Helge69 - "Red clouds" • skeeze - "spiral planetary nebula nebula universe" • danbar44 - "ice dawn earth" • Der_Typ_von_Nebenan - "moon universe space" • Unsplash - "life beauty scene" • Christopher.Michel - "Spaceship Earth" • Stefans02 - "Middle Earth: Shadow of Mordor / A Sunny View of Life" • PhotoAtelier - "Spring 2011" • FerGarciaPhoto - "Earth's Hair" • PTNorbert - "star night light" • Curioso_Photography - "above a summary of the the activities" • rujhan_basir - "moon sea blue" • Comfreak - "all universe earth" • WikiImages - "moon moon craters crater" • Massimiliano Tuveri - "Giostre" • Pierce Martin - "Mt. Hood Black and White" • NASA Goddard Photo and Video - "A Mixture of Sea Ice"

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