Jim Crow By Ben Rothman

There were many ways in which whites sought to limit the voting freedoms of African-Americans. The Grandfather Clause is probably the most famous example of this.

The Grandfather Clause says that if a person's grandfather could not vote, then the person, therefore, was also ineligible to vote. This seems odd, but tolerable, until you realize that this clause was passed while the ancestors of African-Americans were still slaves. This clause stop any and all African-Americans from voting until it was abolished in 1915 after being ruled in constitutional by the Supreme Court.

Following the abolishment of the Grandfather Clause, whites added a poll tax. Since this was recently after slavery, and segregation was at its peak, African-Americans were not paid as much as whites. Due to the wage gap, blacks and poor whites were unable to pay the charge required to vote.

Through to about the twentieth century, most of the resources were funneled to white schools first. This caused an increase in teacher salaries and per-pupil funding while it also reduced the size of classes. This also led to a decrease in quality of the education and learning spaces available to blacks.

To ice the cake, they added literacy tests to this hodgepodge of prejudice.

Literacy was not a common gift among the poor and colored communities. Segregation caused the schooling that was offered to blacks to be subpar. This left most of the recently freed colored community in lack of a proper education. Because of their poor education, if they got one at all, often left them without the ability to read.

With the recent termination of slavery, it left southerners with a strong dislike of the colored community. This being said, the average wage gap between black and white teachers was extreme. In some places it was as far as $500. Not only that, but the only reason that the wages came even close in some states is that most black schools were in cities were all wages are generally higher.

During slavery, most of the slaves lived in rural areas, so naturally that is where many lived recently after being freed. After a while, the blacks who lived in these areas weren't making enough money to get out and go by a home in other places and they didn't have access to land either. In the 1900's the racial gap in home ownership rate was approximately 25% points.

When jobs began being available, blacks were the last hired. Then when the economy began to struggle, they were also the first to be fired. Not only could blacks not get jobs, they were only ever given low skill jobs. When 2 million blacks moved from the south to the north, they found that northern whites shared the same attitude about the skills of colored people. As the applied for jobs in war industries, they were often hired as janitors rather than to work on the assembaly line.

There were social aspects of how Jim Crow affected colored people.

Colored people were forced to respect whites as a superior race. They had to use different water fountains, bathrooms, they had to wait in separate areas for busses and trains, and they had separate schools. A black male could be called boy, uncle, or old man (regardless of age), their first name, or any generic male name. The same went for females, they could be called girl, aunty (regardless of age), their first name, or any generic female name.

The mammy (mammie) caricature is a overweight, very dark skinned, maid dressed woman. She is shown as being happy with the work that she has, caused people to thinks that black people were happy with the state they were in. Mammy was the original inspiration for what we know to day as Aunt Jemima.

The Coon Chicken Inn is a restaurant chain that was completely racist toward black people. Inside, it was decorated from ceiling to floor in pictures and decorations displaying blacks poorly. It was most known for its 'Coon' logo, it was placed on postcards, news paper adds, matchboxes, children's fans, spare tire covers, delivery cars, plates, forks, and menus. The enterence to the restaurant was a 12 foot high 'Coon Head' Almost all of the employees in the restaurants were white, except for the Salt Lake City branch which hired some blacks to work in the kitchen.

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