Protein Synthesis Web Page By: Kofi williams

What is protein synthesis? What organelles are involved? What kind or organisms use protein synthesis? Why is it important for living things?

Protein Synthesis is a process by which individual cells build their specific proteins. The process has and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) & ribonucleic acids (RNA). The process happens in the cell’s nucleus. This RNA molecule (copy of the DNA) moves from the nucleus to the cell cytoplasm, where protein synthesis happens.

There are four organelles that are involved in protein synthesis. These include the nucleus, ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, or the Golgi complex. All four work together to synthesize, package and process proteins.

Humans are a kind of organism that use protein synthesis

Protein synthesis is important because the proteins created during this process control the activities of the cells. Without these proteins, many of the processes in the body would fail or not work properly. The DNA in each cell holds the instructions on how to make the protein, which is why every cell in the body must have a copy of the DNA.

What are the steps of transcription? What organelles are involved? Are there any other molecules involved with transcription besides DNA and RNA? § Explain base pair rules between DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA strands When does this happen? Where does this happen in the cell? § Can DNA leave? Can mRNA leave? Explain why or why not.

There are 3 steps to transcription. 1. DNA Polymerase unzips the DNA 2. Use the DNA template to make an mRNA, RNA use U instead of T 3. mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm

Organelles that are involved is the nucleus and ribosomes.

mRNA, rRNA, tRNA & DNA are the only molecules.

RNA base pairing is adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine. DNA base pairing is adenine with thymine and guanine and cytosine. Without complimentary base pairing their would be no structure of a DNA meaning no protein.

It must occur in the nucleus where the DNA in the cell is located but when mRNA happens, it leaves the nucleus and occurs in the cytoplasm.

DNA has to be turned into RNA in order leave the nucleus. DNA can't leave the nucleus because it always has to be protected since it carries our genes.

What are the steps of translation? What organelles are involved? Are there any other molecules involved with transcription besides DNA and RNA? § Explain the role of tRNA (how does it know to bring the correct amino acid???) § Explain the base pair rules between anticodons and codons of tRNA and mRNA When does this happen? Where does this happen in the cell?

There are 4 steps to Translation. 1. mRNA attaches to the ribosome 2. Ribosome reads the mRNA groups in three bases = a codon 3. tRNA molecule come along with right anticodon to match the mRNA codon 4. tRNA molecule carries the amino acid and links them together with peptide bonds to make a protein

The cytoplasm and the ribosomes are involved

mRNA, rRNA, tRNA & DNA are the only molecules

tRNA know to bring the correct amino acid pair because tRNA pair onto the mRNA by way of an anticodon on the opposite side of the molecule. Each anticodon on tRNA matches up with a codon on the mRNA. Amino acids are assembled in the correct order dictated by the mRNA code.

The ribosome only allows the tRNA to bind to the mRNA if it is carrying an amino acid so this happen in the ribosome

What is a mutation? What causes mutations? Explain the different types of mutations (use your notes!!!): § Inversion § Translocation § Duplication § Addition § Deletion § Substitution Explain the difference between: § Frameshift Mutations § Point Mutations · One mutation is considered to be worse than the other. Which one is it? EXPLAIN WHY!!!! Are all mutations considered bad? Explain why or why not AND use examples.

Mutation occurs when a DNA gene is damaged or changed in such a way as to mess up the genetic message carried by that gene

There's two different types of Mutation, point mutation and frameshift mutation.

Point Mutation is a substitution of a base usually only change one amino acid

Frameshift Mutation is a mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

Frameshift is considered worst because every amino acid change after mutation, creating a different protein

Many mutations are neutral, meaning that they have little or no impact on the expression of genes/protein. Some can be harmful if it causes a change in protein structure or gene activity


Created with images by dullhunk - "DNA / Protein function finder from @WellcomeTrust @SangerInstitute @emblebi @YourGenome"

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