## Ohm's Law and Its RelationsCreated by edwin chiu

The characteristic inside the movement of electrons is quite extraordinary as simple laws will heavily decide what the consequences and behaviors of a their movement. This investigation will result in the understanding of how these current electricity laws relate to each other and how they can interact and impact our everyday surroundings.

#### Ohm’s Law

Logically, as the amount of voltage increases, the amount of electric will increase as a result. The other factor, the resistor, decreases and slows the amount of electric current. This basic interaction between these factors result in the creation of Ohm’s Law. The unit of resistance is called the ohm (Ω). Ohm’s Law is stated as follows:

The voltage in a conductor is proportional to the current if the temperature remains constant. So V is directly proportional to I

The graph of voltage against current is a straight line making the slope it constant thus making the constant the electrical resistance.

V is directly proportional to I so V = constant x I , constant = V/I , R = V/I . Where V is voltage measured in volts, I is the electric current measured in Ampere, and R is the resistance measured in volts per Ampere.

#### Kirchhoff’s Laws (KCL and KVL)

At around 1845, a German physicist named Gustav Kirchhoff studied the behavior of circuits. He discovered 2 important laws: Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) and Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL). These laws helped us understand what will happen to the voltage and current when a circuit is in use.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

In any complete path in an electric circuit, the total voltage increase at the energy sources is equal to the the total voltage decrease throughout the rest of the circuit.This law applies in closed circuits where there is a source. The sum of the voltage gains and drops is zero. The voltage then in a circuit remains constant.

Logically, a series circuit has only one path so loads must share the voltage amount. The total voltage across the loads must add up to the voltage at the source(s). If Vseries is the voltage difference across the source of electrical energy, and the others identify as loads, then the formula for series circuits would be: Vseries = V1 + V2 + V3 + …

For parallel circuits, there is more than one path, so the voltage decrease across each load must be the same as the voltage decrease at the source (s). This then makes the voltage across the loads and source the same. If Vparallel is the voltage difference across the source of electrical energy, and the others identify as loads, then the formula for parallel circuits would be: Vparallel = V1 = V2 =V3 = …

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff%27s_circuit_laws

Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)

The Kirchhoff’s Current Law is where in a closed circuit, the amount of current entering a joint (node), is equal to the amount of current exiting a joint (node).A series circuit has only one path so there can only be one possible current. If Iseries is the current going through the source of electrical energy, and the others as loads, then the formula is Iseries = I1 = I2 =I3 = …

A parallel circuit has more than one path. So the current split evenly, depending on the number of paths. The more complete paths there are, the more ways the current can split across other paths resulting in the formula where Iparallel is the current going through the source of electrical energy, and the others as loads Iparallel = I1 + I2 + I3 = …

### Current Electricity Behaviors

There are multiple interference's that can affect the movement of electrons including the basic properties of a wire and the loads inside the circuit.

Properties of a Wire that Affect Resistance

There are multiple factors that can change the resistance of a wire such as length, width, and material. As there are different types of materials that can be used as a conductor, some do not transfer electrons as easily like iron compared with copper and aluminum which act as a resistor then. As a wire needs to push electrons through into a specific directions, letting the electrons move easily into the desired directions will easily make the electrons move.

The length of a wire also changes the resistance as a shorter wire allows to get to its desired location without slowing down due to a shorter loss of velocity. This means that the longer the wire, the voltage will eventually start to decrease. The diameter of the wire also changes the resistance of the wire as the amount of force needed to push the electrons is easier if the width of the wire increases. As more electrons can be moved at the same time, the total charge in a given time increases and will result in a way faster flow. Also the overall temperature of wire changes the resistance of the wire as a higher temperature will make electrons bump into each other more slowing the flow of electrons in a direction.

### Interactions and Transfers between Matter and Energy in (Circuit Electricity) Ohm’s Law and Other Laws

In an electric circuit, there are many transfers between Matter and Energy in the following categories: including heat energy, light energy, and magnetism.

#### Heat Energy

First, there are simple everyday circuits in the world. Ranging from circuits from your microwave to circuits leading from the power station to your home. But the hairdryer is a great one with its basic components in a circuit with its air heating technology. The transfer of electrons in a circuit is how it starts. As electrons strike and bump off of atoms, they will have electrostatic potential energy which then will let other electrons to have the ability to set off other electrons creating rapid increase in heat within the wirh other. This will transfer kinetic energy to the other electron. This also sends thermal energy into the electrons which makes the other electrons go off into random directions. The longer this happens and the higher the voltage compared to the resistor, the higher the temperature of the conductor will be. This is process is called Joule Heating and proves the phenomenon of Overheating in electricity. This is a transfer of matter and energy through a circuit.

#### Light energy

The transfer of electrical charge in a circuit can transfer kinetic energy into light energy too. In a circuit, the energy is just like the transfer into heat energy with impacts of electrons.

There are two basic methods of producing artificial light. The first is to heat something so hot that it glows. The second method is to pass an electric current through a gas or vapor so that the gas or vapor lights up. Both methods cause electrons to emit energy in the form of light rays. For instance, as the electrical current is pushing electrons forward and into the electrons, the kinetic energy provides enough energy to make the electrons to move to the other outer shells. When the nucleus pulls them back, the extra energy is emitted as a ray of light. The 1st method is in a light bulb as pathway of electricity goes through the filament heating it to around 2500° C. This shows the transfer of electricity by expressing it though light energy through electrical charges.

#### Magnetism

Magnetism is strongly connected to electricity because their behaviors and charcterics.

When an electric current flows through a wire, a magnetic field is produced around it. To increase the power of the field, the wire is wound into a coil which will concentrate the field. The line of force of all the loops in the diagram combine to produce a field similar to a regular bar magnet. With an iron bar in the middle will definitely increase its strength. The poles of the electromagnet are at either ends.

This simple concept of electromagnetism has put brought the world of electricity forward from creating electromagnet (which also used coils) to a transformer. An electromagnet is a great example as an electromagnet is a coil of wire wound and stacked around an iron core. The current flows through the coil creating a magnetic coil. The stronger the current that passes through the coils, the stronger the pull. These are the reasons of how energy and matter is transferred through circuits using the concept magnetism.

### Positive and Negative Social Impacts from Current Electricity

When I was learning about current electricity, I only thought of it as as a small thing to worry about. This gave me tunnel vision of the concept of electricity making me avoid the international transfer of electric charges like inside the electric car, electric generator, the transformer, power lines, and more. From a social perspective, current electricity really has drastically impacted the people on Earth including Canada with creating new inventions with the simple closed electric circuit.

#### The Light Bulb

A positive impact would be the creation of the light bulb which uses current electricity to make it run. The light bulb has given such a large impact as it gave people the comfort of having interior and exterior lighting without much precautions. For example, the flame of a candle is dangerous as it can be knocked over very easily. While adding light bulbs, it can transform into other inventions using the understanding of the heat through conduction. Also light bulbs has given the opportunity to create more appliances like the microwave and a heat element stove. Lights bulbs then lead to fluorescence lights and LED lights which is now on everyday electronics now. The light bulb has revolutionized our ability to perform in our lives. In Canada, the impact of the light bulb was just like any countries in the world where other inventions can be created with the concept of simple electric circuits. Light bulbs gave Canada multiple distribution centers to create and make appliances making Canada as a more recognizable national partner further increasing Canada’s reputation.

A negative impact on society from current electricity is so broad that narrowing it down will lead to straying off topic. An impact would be the strive for overuse of light bulbs in our world. We are constantly consuming electricity for our everyday lives and needs which will affect our behavioral patterns. We have gotten lazier and selfish by using electricity for just everyday things we actually don’t need. Also as light effects our work patterns due to longer work periods, we become more tired but progress well but in a way that will have a negative impact in the future.

#### Automobiles

Another positive impact from current electricity is the invention of automobiles. Automobiles has granted the world easier social interactions, employment patterns, and the distribution of goods creating a different culture in society. Transportation is essential to the movement between people and different locations including immigration and the transfer from rural to urban communities. Automobiles in the world has given urban settlements the prefered area to be employed in as there are more benefits. This leaves rural settlements to have a population. Resource production or the primary industry will have fewer jobs resulting in social pressure to carry the weight of the consumers in the city. WIth automobiles, the influence will be stronger and more effective. In Canada, this will create a larger gap between the population in urban and rural settlements as cars influenced them greatly.

A negative social impact from cars is the rise of accidental death from automobiles, the rise in obesity levels, and noise pollution. Accidental death has been on the rise with the growth of more improved cars with higher torques and higher horsepower resulting in a lack of safety with the popular cars in the world. But has improved either way. For example, the use of mobile devices is a factor as it distracts the user from driving with more caution. They both are run by current electricity. The rise of obesity was also an effect from automobiles as it makes people become more lazy by letting the automobile to do the work for them resulting in the decline of exercising. In Canada, more people drive as most communities inside Canada are considered Suburban areas resulting in almost all people have a car to drive in. Noise pollution is also a negative impact as it both affects health and behavior. Excess noise can damage health by causing hearing loss, higher stress levels, sleep disturbances, and more. Settlement near roadways can cause these conditions even further. These disturbances are most common in urban areas as heavy traffic noises are most common.

### Positive and Negative Environmental Impacts from Current Electricity

Current electricity has many positive environmental impacts including from and negative environmental impacts including from extracting materials on Earth and pollution.

The positive environmental impacts from current electricity is limited as using a resource for energy is probably extracted from nature creating environmental harm. But renewable energy I suppose has its benefits as they are constantly being replenished. Some energy resources do not affect the environment as much after construction like solar energy. Solar power also is a very efficient resource as it only has 22g to 46g CO2 eq/kWh compared to other energy resources like coal & fossil gas at 820 and 490 g CO2 eq/kWh globally. With this efficiency, there will be long lasting benefits to use electricity without too much environmental impacts.

But with Canada’s latitude and water vapor in the air, less direct sunlight from the Sun making it an insufficient resource compared to other renewable resources that does not have latitude as a factor for productivity.

Extracting materials on Earth has always been a negative environment impact. This concept of this is use energy fast as possible but has scarred Earth’s environment by destroying land and building on it for energy production. Manipulating land will always have its consequences of destroying habitats which can endanger living organisms at the same time. The land under will also not be usable anymore as it also wouldn't be as rich to settle on as before. The destruction of the land also will support erosion and will break it down even further.

Pollution is also a negative impact due to using the extracted materials from Earth which had taken its toll on the world as the the rise in climatic temperature on the Earth. Fossil fuels had contributed the most as it released way more carbon in the air rather than other resources who have a low-emission cost. Globally, pollution will hurt the atmosphere and result in devastating changes in climate with more natural disasters. Climate change also directly affects the ocean. There are large ecosystems inside of them and is constantly being changing. Fish migration patterns has changed due the rise in temperature of the ocean and the differences of current including El Nino and El Niña which runs the across the Pacific Ocean. In Canada, events of large precipitation patterns and temperature has already shown specifically inside our community. We’ve experienced high temperature drops from warm weather to snow storms the next day. This was because of the large movement of low pressure coming from the south.

### Positive and Negative Economic Impacts from Current Electricity

Current electricity and electricity production impacts the economy greatly as it is the integrity to the communication of the world, its trades, its people, and more.

A positive economic impact from current electricity would be through energy production. Energy production has given countries and large organizations a larger connection with each other through trades and telecommunications. Electricity lead to the development of telecommunication satellites and the internet creating a full platform to trade and manage businesses and money. Canada’s economy has definitely improved once we have been able to manage and create online businesses. Trades in the world has improved as products can now be ordered across the world via the internet resulting in cheaper costs without hassle and it's much faster and direct.

A negative economic impact from current electricity ties with climate change itself. As more and more disastrous events happen around the world. With this, there will be more repair costs and damage resulting in heavier pressure on politicians. This includes rise of sea levels which will result in more funds to move people away from the rise, harming the agricultural process by destroying them resulting in a broken production cycle, and more.

### Bibliography

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohm%27s_law

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff%27s_circuit_laws

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule_heating

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnet

http://www.ehow.com/facts_5744753_impact-light-bulbs-society.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_the_car_on_societies

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_pollution

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_impacts_of_climate_change

Credits:

Created with images by nodomain1 - "Light Bulb"

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