Some social variables considered important for addressing sustainability challenges are uncommon in social-ecological studies, e.g., culture, politics, and power.
The team found some disciplines like ecology, urban studies, and geography had better integration than sociology, biology, and public administration. In addition to ecology and urban studies, biodiversity conservation provides vital knowledge in integrating other disciplines into social-ecological research. Studies founded on systems theory have the highest rates of integration.
Highly integrative studies combine different types of tools, involve stakeholders at appropriate stages, and tend to deliver practical recommendations.