Color blindness is a medical condition that involves the cones and rods in the eyes to not work properly. Depending on what type of color blindness the individual has correlates back to which cones and rods work in the eyes. Individuals who have color blindness are normally born with it and most individuals who have color blindness are male. This is due to the X-chromosome carries the gene for color blindness and men only have one X-chromosome, women have two and a functional X-chromosome will compensate for the lack of having an non-functional one. Color blindness also isn't necessarily present at birth, as it can begin in childhood years or even later on in adulthood. There are eight different kinds of color blindness, categorized into three different types. Each is detailed below with more information on what it is.
Red - Green Color Blindness
Most Common Types of Color Blindness
Protanomaly occurs when the red cone photopigment in the eye is abnormal. This causes reds, oranges, and yellows to appear greener and all colors to appear duller. It affects 1% of males.
Deuteranomaly occurs when the green photopigment is abnormal. Yellow and green appear more red and telling the difference between violets and blues is difficult. This is the most common form of color blindness and affects 5% of males.
If a person suffers from Protanopia, it means there are no working red cone cells int he eye. Red is non-existent and orange, yellow, and green all appear yellow. This type of red-green color blindness affects 1% of males.
Deuteranopia is when there are no working green cone cells. Reds become brownish yellow in tone and greens appear mostly beige. It is a rare form of color blindness affecting only 1% of males.
Blue - Yellow Color Blindness
Rarer than Red-Green Color Blindness
Tritanomaly is when the blue cone cells have limited to no function. Blues appear greener and red and yellow are hard to tell from pink. It is extremely rare to have Tritanomaly, but it affects males and females equally.
People with Tritanopia lack blue cone cells in the eye. Blue appears as a form of green and yellow appears violet or light gray. It is extremely rare, and affects males and females equally.
Complete Color Blindness
Rarest type of Color Blindness
People with Monochromacy have only one of the three cone cell photopigments working. There are three types of Monochromacy - red, green, and blue cone. Viewers have trouble distinguishing colors from one another because not having multiple cones work doesn't allow for the eye to compare signals from the other cones.
Being the rarest form of color blindness, Achromatopsia is the most severe type of color blindness and is present at birth. None of the cone cells work and people with Achromatopsia view the world in black, gray, and white. They also tend to be photophobic, which means they are uncomfortable in bright environments.