Rise of the Kingdoms: Trade among groups moved them to the east coast, the item traded were for minerals and luxury items.
Around year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom which is now called Zimbabwe. Great Zimbabwe was the largest of similar cities in the region.
The Mutapa Empire
In the late 1400's the Shona conquered the region between Zambezi and Limpopo river from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique. Like Zimbabwe, the Mutapa Empire thrived on the gold it mined and traded for goods from China and India.
The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800s to form the Zulu empire in what is now South Africa. He built a powerful army and used it to expand the empire by conquering neighboring people.
Around 1500, Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.
Clashes in South Africa
During the 1600s till about the 1800s Europeans set up trading posts but did not establish colonies, which are large territories with settlers from the home country.
The Union Of South Africa
Beginning in the 1830s, thousands of Bores left the colony in a migration called the Great Trek and settled north of the Orange River.
Colonialism in Other Areas
While the British and The Boers competed for south Africa, other European countries competed for the rest of Africa.
Question: Which European country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s?
Answer: Britain claimed most of Southern Africa
Independence and Equal Rights
French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence.
The End of Portuguese Rule
Portugal didn't give up land so there were break out in Angola and Mozambique.
The Birth of Zimbabwe
After granting Malawi and Zambia independence, Britain prepared to free neighboring Zimbabwe.
Equal Rights in South Africa
By the 1970's apartheid-related events in South Africa gained world attention. Countries began placing embargos, or bans on trade, on South Africa. The ANC easily won elections held in 1994 and Mandela became the countries president.
Life In Southern Africa
The people of the Region
The regions African population is made up of many different ethnic and culture groups.
Southern Africa's countries vary widely in population. Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries Lesotho and Swaziland. South Africa, which surrounds both of them, has the regions largest population- about 49 million.
Ethnic and Culture Groups
African are not a single group. Southern Africa is home to many ethnic and cultural groups who speak several different languages. One group the Shona, makes up more than 80% of the population of the country Zimbabwe.
Religion and Languages
Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced its people's religious beliefs. In almost every country, most of the people are Christians.
What is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?
Answer: The main religion practiced is Christianity.
Life in Southern Africa
As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.
South Africa has 4 cities-Durban, Ekurhuleni, Cape Town, and Johannesburg- whit populations with around 3 million or more.
Urban Growth and Change
The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities such as trash collection, sewage, treatment, and water distribution. Luanda, for example, has had many problems providing enough clean water for its many people. Outbreaks of cholera and other disease have resulted from drinking polluted water.
Family and Traditional Life
People who move to the cities must adjust to new experiences and a different way of life. In the countryside, traditional ways of life remain strong.
Question: Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live?
Answer: They live more in the countryside.
Southern Africa Today
Southern Africa's wealth of mineral, wildlife, and other resources may be the key to its future.
In the majority of countries, most people do not live beyond age 50, or 55.
Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries. Dysentery and cholera, potentially fatal diseases caused by bacteria in water, are also widespread. So is tuberculosis.
Progress and Growth
Angola and Mozambique continue to rebuild the cities and towns, industries, railroads, and communication systems that have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war. Oil exports in Angola and aluminum exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.
Help From Other Countries
The United States had used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa Other U.S. programs have provided billions of dollars to pay for medicine for Aids sufferers and orphans.
Question: Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low?
Answer: There isn't good health.