- Safety-refers to measures taken against the threat of an accident.
- Security- refers to protection from threats motivated by hostility or malice.
Attacks on Civil Aviation
- Bombings, shootings, and miscellaneous attacks at airports.
- Bombings, shootings, hijacking, and miscellaneous attacks on aircraft on the ground or in flight.
- General Aviation and Charter Aviation aircraft attacks.
- Off-airport facility attacks.
- Shootings (from the ground) at aircraft during takeoff and landing.
Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
The very first recorded act of hijacking was in 1930 when Peruvian revolutionaries seized an F7 Fokker aircraft. This marked the beginning of an era for this new crime, but it was not until the post-war period with the huge growth in air passenger transport that hijacking came to international prominence.
Attacks against civil aviation rose rapidly in the 1967-1976 decade. While there were only 32 worldwide hijackings from 1961 to 1967, there were 290 hijackings attempts worldwide during the following 4 years after 1968.
The climax occurred in 1969 when 33 regularly scheduled U.S. airliners were hijacked. By 1969, the number of U.S. passengers and crew members who were being detoured to Cuba totaled 1359. This led to a great deal of money being spent on security by the air carriers and the FAA on x-ray systems, magnetometers, training programs for screening personnel and air marshals, after which the relative level of security immediately rose.
The decade of the 1980s was a disastrous one for aviation. This period confirmed the existence of a dangerous trend toward greater violence against air transportation. Overall, 25 planes were sabotaged by explosives, causing 1237 casualties.