Vernonia School District v. Acton, 1995
The school argued that they did not have probable cause but it was "reasonable" for them to do checks because they had temporary custody over the students and needed to, like the railway case, put the students safety first.
Pottawatomie School Board V. Earls,
The argument for students with a sports related activity is that if they are on drugs, it would cause safety hazards and drug tests would be mandatory but this should not go for all activities, such as choir that does not pose a risk to safety. By drug testing all students in activities, they were completing incremental intrusion, which was violating and intruding all the rights of the student.
However, it is reasonable to give drug tests because it is normal to be asked to be tested everywhere else. This also supports the claim that the activity was done out of own will, so the students are also willing to do whatever comes with the activity, which is take to take the drug tests. It was then concluded by the court that "reasonable" the test or not, the school ultimately has the temporary custody as mentioned before in the Vernonia case.
The supreme court evolved the word "reasonable" to fit for the school boards more than the students. From the cases decisions, it has been the majority opinion that support school boards' argument of temporary custody. In the last case, Pottawatomie v. Earls, it was discussed that more and more rights are taken away from students, nonetheless, "reasonable" is sometimes sacrificed to ensure total safety for all, and the school has the right to do so.