Royal Palace Amsterdam
The Royal Palace Amsterdam is one of three Palaces used by the Dutch Monarch, mostly for State Visits, Award Ceremonies, New Years Receptions, and other official functions. The Palace served as Amsterdam's city hall for 150 years, the French Royal and Imperial Palace for 5 years, and the Palace of the House of Orange for the past 2 centuries.
1. Marriage between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden. Marriages nevertheless concluded are invalid, even if concluded abroad to circumvent the law. Annulment proceedings can be initiated only by the State Prosecutor.
2. Extramarital intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood is forbidden.
3. Jews may not employ in their household female subjects of the state of German o related blood who are under 45 years old.
4. Jews are forbidden to fly the Reich or National flag or to display the Reich colors. They are, on the other hand, permitted to display the Jewish colors. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.
5. Any person who violates the prohibition under I will be punished by a prison sentence with hard labor. A male who violates the prohibition under I will be punished with a prison sentence with or without hard labor. Any person violating the provisions under III or IV will be punished with a prison sentence of up to one year and a fine, or with one or the other of these penalties. The Reich Minister of the Interior, in coordination with the Deputy of the Führer and the Reich Minister of Justice, will issue the Legal and Administrative regulations required to implement and complete the Law. The Law takes effect on the day following.
The Nuremberg Law was the first step in the persecution of Jewish people in Germany. This law distinguished Jews from the rest of the population of Germany and revoked their citizenship. Enacting this law stripped Jewish people of their basic rights and separated them from the rest of the German citizens. When I first read about the Nuremberg Law, I was shocked at what lengths the Germans would go to in order to preserve blood purity. America also had their own version of the Nuremberg Law at the time. The Jim Crow Laws discriminated against African Americans and deprived them of their basic rights.
Propaganda is information that is used to promote a political cause or point of view. It is meant to persuade the audience and influence their opinions, emotions, attitude, and behavior. Types of propaganda are posters, books, movies, tv shows, news reports, and the radio. It is a powerful weapon on war the is meant to demonize the enemy and encourage hate towards them. Catchy slogans are another type of propaganda used. Propaganda appeals to your emotions, especially fear, to get you to take action. Name calling is using negative connotation and loaded labels to encourage the dislike of the enemy. Patriotic symbols are also used to appeal to people's national pride and catchy slogans are used to foster support for the cause. Visual symbols such as flags, mothers, and children are used as well as human caricatures.
Otto Frank was born in Frankfurt, Germany on May 12, 1889. He studied art history in Heidelberg, Germany and then left for New York to gain work experience at a Macy's department store and a bank. In August fo 1915, Otto was drafted into the military and he was eventually promoted to the rank of army lieutenant. He married Edith Holländer in 1925, and then they had Margot and Anne. Otto set up the Opekta and Pectacon companies and remained in charge of them from behind the scenes when the Franks went into hiding. After the war he moved to Basel, Switzerland and married Elfriede (Fritzi) Markovits. He died in Basel on August 19, 1980.
Edith was born as Edith Holländer in Aachen, Germanh on January 16, 1900. She went to high school at Viktoriaschule, which was an all girls Christian school. She married Otto Frank on May 12, 1925 and they moved to Frankfurt am Main where they had two daughters, Margot and Anne. While Otto went to the Netherlands in 1933, Edith stayed in Aachen with Anne, Margot, and her mother. She eventually moved to the Netherlands, with Anne and Margot soon to follow. Edith went into hiding with her family on July 6, 1942 and they were discovered on August 4, 1944. Those in hiding were sent to the Westerbrook transit camp and later, the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. Edith survived the initial selection, but died in Auschwitz after Anne and Margot were deported to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
Margot Frank was born in Frankfurt am Maim. She is Anne's sister and is three years older than her. Margot began school at the Ludwig Richter Schule. She emigrated to the Netherlands with her parents in 1933. Margot started school in Amsterdam in 1934, but transferred to the Joods Lyceum (‘Jewish High School’) in 1941. Margot got her call-up papers on July 5, 1942, and she went into hiding with her family a day later. Everyone in hiding are arrested on August 4, 1944 and sent to the Westerbork transit camp. Margot and the others were then deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, but she was later sent with Anne to the Bergen-Belsen camp. She died in February of 1945 because of typhus.
Hermine (Miep) Gies-Santrouschitz was born in Vienna, Austria on February 15, 1909. She came to the Netherlands in 1920 with a group of children to recover from terbusulosis and malnutrition after World War I. Miep started off living with her foster family in Leiden and they eventually moved to Amsterdam. She started working as Otto Frank's secretary at his Opekta trading company in 1933. Miep married Jan Gies on July 16, 1941. Miep helped the Frank's while they were in hiding and she found Anne's diary after the others were arrested. Otto Frank lived with Miep and her husband after the war and she gave him his daughter's diary when they heard that Anne had died. She stopped working at Opekta when she had her son named Paul on July 13, 1950. Miep writes a book: ‘Memories of Anne Frank’ in 1987 and died at 100 years old on January 11, 2010.
Act I Summary
The play begins after the war is over when Otto Frank is saying goodbye to the Secret Annex before leaving Amsterdam forever. Then the play goes back in time to when the Van Daans and the Franks move into the Secret Annex. Everyone in hiding must be silent during the day so that they will not be discovered, but are free to talk, play games, and have dinner once the workers head home for the night. Miep and Mr. Kraler take care of those in hiding by running errands for them and smuggling up supplies, which include food and books. Mr. Dussel, a Jewish dentist, moves into the Secret Annex and he shares a room with Anne, while Margot goes to sleep in the main room with her parents. Anne and Mr. Dussel don't get along and constantly fight about things such as who gets to use the desk. One night Anne wakes up everyone in hiding with her screams because she had a nightmare and the others are angry because they fear that someone will hear her. Eventually it is time for Hannukah and Anne makes gifts for everyone with what little that they have. Peter then knocks over a lampshade, which makes their location known to the thief who was in the warehouse. Everyone begins to panic because they fear that the thief will turn them into the Green Police and that their fate is sealed. Mr. Frank goes downstairs and discovers that the thief stole the radio and the cash box, but nothing else. Once everyone calms down, they join together and sing the Hannukah song.
Warsaw Ghetto UPrising
When did the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising take place?
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising took place in 1943 and lasted from April 19 to May 16.
How many people died in the Warsaw Ghetto?
Around 300,000 Jews were killed in the Warsaw Ghetto.
How many German soldiers and Jewish fighters were killed in the uprising?
About 300 German soldiers and 7,000 Jewish fighters were killed in the uprising.
As a result of the Uprising, what did it do for Jewish morale in Poland?
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the most important Jewish uprising during World War II. This resistance inspiring many other uprisings in ghettos and killing centers throughout the war.
Act II Summary
Miepp and Mr. Kraler bring those in hiding a cake to celebrate the New Year, which is special because it is their first cake in many months. Mr. Kraler also breaks the news that one of the employees asks about the Franks and then asks for a raise, which clearly is blackmail. Anne and Peter then learn to get along and eventually become great friends. After many long conversations with each other, Peter eventually gives an a kiss on the cheek. One night Mrs. Frank catches Mr. Van Daan stealing bread and she becomes so upset that she insists that the Van Daans must leave the hideout. Mr. Frank convinces her to let them stay by saying that Mr. Van Daan will never steal again and she eventually concedes. Everyone in the Secret Annex begins to panic when one Friday no workers come to work and the telephone is ringing constantly. That is the day when the group was discovered by the Nazis who broke down the door and made everyone quickly pack their things. Miep was out fetching food while those in hiding were captured, and returned to find them all gone. At the end of the story Mr. Frank states that the Van Daans, Mr. Dussel, Anne, Margot, and Mrs. Frank all died at concentration camps. Mr. Frank was the only one to survive the Holocaust because lived long enough to see his camp liberated.