President Notes By: Tina ly

George Washington

George Washington was known as a leader, he was Intelligent, and honest.

The Judiciary Act of 189 created three levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts.

The French revolution is A rebellion of French people against their King in 1789.

Whiskey Rebellion

Whiskey Rebellion is farmers in Pennsylvania who rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, Washington put down the rebellion and pardon those involved. This demonstrated new the Government's authority and compassion.

The Joy treaty is an agreement negotiated by john jay to work out problems between British and the United States over Northwestern lands, British seizure of U.S. ships, and U.S. debts owed to the British.

Hamilton, Washington, and Madison

With the help of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, Washington wrote his Farewell Address. In the Farewell Address he spoke about what he believed were the greatest dangers to the American Republic. Among these were the dangers of foreign ties with other countries because choosing sides could draw the United States into war. The Nation would try to follow a course of non-involvement with other governments seemed unavoidable.

Washington left office warning the nation to work out its differences and protect its independence, Washington debt. He thought the government should try not to borrow money. He wanted future generations to be protected from dept.

Henry Knox was the secretary of war, Thomas Jefferson was the secretary of state, Edmund Randolph is the attorney general, Alexander Hamilton was the secretary of the treasury, and George Washington was the president.

Washington's cabinet members kept him informed on political matters and debated important issues with one another. Each of the men chosen had experience that made him a wise choice to advise the nation’s first president. By 1792 cabinet meetings were a common practice.

John Adams

Democratic Republican Party, its member called republicans wanted to limit the federal government’s power. The federalists chose John Adams and Thomas Pinckney as candidates. Adams knew he was not well liked in the South or the West, but he hoped people would support him after they thought about his years of loyal public service.

In 1798 the Federalist controlled congress passed four laws know together as the Alien and Sedition Acts. These laws were said to protect the United States but the Federalist intended them to crush opposition to war. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. These documents argued that the Alien and Sedition acts were unconstitutional.

The Election of 1800 led to the 12th amendment which is seen to some people as the end of the early republic that began with the failure of the Articles of Confederation and the creation of the Constitution. The election signaled that the new system of government would carry the nation through a peaceful transition of political power. The problems with the voting system led congress to propose the Twelfth Amendment. This amendment created a separate ballot for president and vice president.

John Adams had the challenging task of following Washington, Adams would have to work hard to win the people’s trust. Although Adams had been a leading Patriot during the American Revolution and had later served as a foreign diplomat, he lacked Washington’s dignity, and most people saw him as a cold and distant person. Still many people- even those who opposed him respected Adams. They recognized his hard work, honesty, and intelligence.

Marbury vs. Madison, a case that helped establish the supreme court’s power to check the power of the other because of government.

Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson read his speech in a quiet voice, he wanted to make it clear that he supported the will of the majority, he also stressed the need for a limited government and the protection of civil liberties.

Peaceful change of political power from one party to another. The tied race led to the Twelfth Amendment of 1804, which created a separate ballot for president and vice president.

This led to controversy once Jefferson took office. William marbury named as a justice of the peace by President Adams, did not receive his documents before Adams left office. When Jefferson took office, Marbury demanded the documents. On Jefferson’s advice, however, the new secretary of state, James Madison, refused to deliver them. Jefferson argued that the appointment of the midnight judges was not valid.

The reason of the Lewis and Clark expedition was because America was expanding westward, so it was a long journey to explore the Louisiana purchase.

In late 1807 Congress passed the Embargo Act ​. The law essentially banned trade with all foreign countries.

Louisiana Purchase

The city of New Orleans and the Mississippi River is important to farmers because, New Orleans New Orleans, located at the mouth of the Mississippi, was a very important port. It's busy docks were filled with settlers’ farm products and valuable furs bought from American Indians.

Napoleon's plan was to rebuild France's Empire in North America.American farmers were alarmed because Americans didn't want him to do that because they wouldn't be able to settle, If Napoleon closed the port to American goods, farmers would have no ways to get their crops to market. His plans failed and was defeated.

The deal that was made on April 30, 1803 was called the Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon was willing to make this deal with the United States because he needed money for Military Supplies, and because he wanted to make America big to give the British a Challenge.

One pro of the Louisiana Purchase is that it doubled the size of the U.S. Another pro is that Napoleon won’t try to take over America. Cons were that they lost 15 million, and they will be more of a threat to other countries.

James Madison

July 1812// General William Hull enters Canada. This is the first of three failed attempts made by the U.S. to invade.
September 1813// Captain Perry defeats the British at the Battle of Lake Erie.
August 1813// The British burn Washington DC in retaliation for the burning of York. President James Madison flees the Capital.
December 1814// The Treaty of Ghent: Americans and British diplomats agree to the terms of a treaty and return to the status quo from before the war.
January 1815// Andrew Jackson defeats the British at the Battle of New Orleans.

James Monroe

From 1815 to 1825 the United States enjoyed ​the Era of Good Feelings, ​a time of peace, ​​pride, and progress.

James Monroe sent out a few troops to go out and capture Florida, General Andrew Jackson, led the troops. They found and captured the Seminole Indian raiders and took over and took over Spain’s main military post. Spain felt threatened so they made the “Adam-Onis treaty”, this treaty gave all of east Florida, and 5 million dollars for Texas territory.

Mexico declared independence with Spain, which worried Monroe because he thought that Europeans will try to take over latin land and Russia might try to get the north-eastern land, so Monroe and Samuel adams came up with a document called the “Monroe Doctrine” that warns European power not to interfere with the Americans.

Henry Clay is known for the Missouri compromise, which settled ​the conflict that had arisen from Missouri’s application for statehood Congress passed the Missouri Compromise in 1820. Despite the success of the ​compromise, there were still strong disagreements between the North and South over ​the expansion of slavery.Although people ​hoped that the compromise would end the ​debate, the issue would continue to arise ​with each new application for statehood.​​

The Erie Canal ​allowed goods and people to move between towns on Lake Erie and New York City and ​the East Coast. Its success served as an ​incentive for a canal-building boom across ​​the country. ​

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