Unit 1 Civics Review NANAMI yOSHIDA

  • Social Contract: People who give up rights to a Leviathan (powerful ruler) in order to have security.
  • Common Good: Things that are shared and what is beneficial for the community.
  • Political Parties: Group of people who come to contest the election and hold power in government.
  • Representative Democracy: Type of democracy founded on the principle of elected official representing a group of people.
  • The enlightenment: Western thoughts and culture spread around between seventeenth to eighteenth century.
  • John Locke: He was born as blank slate and thought that humans were good and had the idea of natural rights.
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau: He made social contract, which was an agreement between free individuals to create a fair and balanced government.
  • Thomas Hobbes: He thought that nature is a state of war and all individuals in nature are equal but pessimistic about humans: everyone against each other.
  • Baron De Montesquieu: He thought that people were power-hungry and are fear-driven to form societies . Separated the powers in government (executive, Judicial, Legislative).
  • The Magna Carta: "The Great Charter" an agreement of the rights and duties of English nobles in order to limit the King's power. Signed by King John in 1215.
  • The English Bill of Rights: It reaffirmed principle of individual rights, power of Monarchy about 4 amendmens.
  • Committee: People who are appointed for a specific function, typically consisting of a larger group.
  • Apportionment: the proportional distribution of the seats in the legislative body 9esp. House of Representative).
  • Gerrymandering: Manipulate the electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class.
  • Redistricting:


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