Biotechnology By: Ben Kasko


What is Cloning?
CloniNg is the creatIng an exact copy of an organIsm (Includimg microorganisms)

Cloning works by taking DNA and sequencing them, and stitching them into carrier molecules called vectors, that can be copied many times over and over in bacteria or cells. Clones are given life through aesexual reproduction.

Is Cloning used today?

Cloning is used today by scientists to create copies of organisms to test experimental drugs to test reactions of the drug. These tests are also used for breeding purposes in order to make superior animals and plants to extracts useful resources from them more efficiently.

Are there any ethical issues with Cloning?

Some people find the cloning or anything to be completely okay, while others find it to go against their religion and their morals. Scientists find it ok, while most church organizations want cloning to stop, because it goes against what is said in the Bible.

Benefits and problems in cloning.

The cloning of organisms has some benefits and some problems. Benefits of cloning animals and plants include increasing product output of the cloned organisms. They also be cloned for work force as manual labor for farming. Problems include with animals having some health problems and have a higher possibility to dying earlier.

How is technology used for Cloning?

In order to use the process of cloning, certain technologies are required for this to happen. Technologies include pipettes, microscopes, Petri dishes, etc. Technology is used for extracting the DNA from one organism to another cell or bacteria.

How is the Human Genome helpful for Cloning?

The Human Genome is collection of all the genes in the human body. The Human Genome is useful for cloning as if you wanted to help modify a human to fix a mutation you know what gene to extract and place into that human.

High Tech Genetics: Bioinformatics and Microarray

Microarrays being mapped
What is Bioinformatics and Microarrays?

Bioinformatics is the use of computers and technology gather and store biological data. Microarrays are just used to help keep track of certain genes and DNA in the bioinformatic grids.

How is technology used for Bioinformatics and Microarrays?

In order for bioinformatics to be recorded certain technologies are required. The technology that is required is all done with computers. So the technology needed is a way to keep track of the data, and a computer to store all the data/information on genes or DNA.

How is the Human Genome helpful for Bioinformatics and Microarrays?

The Human Genome is helpful for Bioinformatics and Microarrays in serveral ways. One way that it is helpful is that it allows for the tracking of human genes to be stored and to be analyzed. These then can used to see variations or mutations in genes with microarrays.

Genetically Modified Organisms - GMO'S

GMO is a genetically modified organism in which iTs genome has been genetically modified throUgh direct manipulation
What are GMO'S?

GMO's are genetically modified organisms whether they are plants or animals. They are modified through the changing of their genome. Their genome is changed by a direct manipulation which is accomplished through adding, deleting, or modifying a specific gene.

Are GMO'S Used Today?

GMO's are used today and you use and consume GMO's almost everyday. Food and agriculture is where GMO's are used the most to give us more nutrients. Some animals are done for testing with having their genomes changed so they too count as a GMO.

Are there any ethical issues with GMO's?

There are some people who do have issues about the use of GMO's. They feel that science is causing us to turn evil and that we are changing the organisms God gave to us. They find that we are playing God and some people aren't ok with that, and will now only eat organic locally grown food that has not been modified. Because people are skeptical, food administrators are now required in the U.S to put labels showing if it was a GMO organism.

Benefits and Problems with GMO's.

GMO's can cause many helpful ways for human life but also some things. Some benefits that it provides is that it can more nutrients in food, and cure certain diseases common for that animal. Some problems it can create is that the animal can become not as healthy and some people are skeptical about GMO's and won't eat them.

How is technology used for GMO's?

In order for GMO's to be achieved certain technology is required. Some things required for genomes to be made are microorganisms like bacteria to hold the modified DNA for the organism, or you need enzymes to help remove part of the gene. You need basic lab equipment to extract the DNA and modify the gene, so goggles, pipettes, Petri dishs, etc.

How is the Human Genome helpful for GMO's?

The Human Genome is surprisingly not helpful at all for GMO's. Scientists and governments have agreed together that testing and modifying humans is immoral and illegal. So therefore no legal testing has ever been done to humans.

Stem Cell Research - Adult vs. Embryonic

Picture of a stem cell
What are Stem Cells?

Stem cells are cells that are capable of being able to transform into other types of cells in their early life and growth stage. Stem cells are just like normal cells and act like them, but have that extra ability to change at an early stage.

Are Stem Cells used today?

Scientists until recently have just now figured out the use and capabilities that stem cells hold. They are trying to figure out how to turn cells that have a specific role back into stem cells to gain back certain locked genes. They are using stem cells in medical fields and for research to uncover more about them.

Are there any ethical problems with Stem Cells?

Some ethical issues do arise to the use of stem cells. Stem cells are being seen as controversial in an embryonic way. Scientists and doctors are using stem cells to help embryos carry out into the womb. People feel that this should be a natural force and shouldn't be used to help fertilize an egg, while some find it ok as it will help the mother out with having a child successfully.

Benefits and Problems with Stem Cells.

Benefits and problems both exist with stem cells as usually most genetic things do. Some benefits is that they can be used to give more cells to help other human functions, and can be helped with forming a baby. Some problems are that stem cells aren't easily made and a correct full solution to making them hasn't been discovered, we can only mimick their behavior at the moment. Some people also find stem cells as altercations and editing them is seen wrong as that was not how that thing was made.

How is technology used for Stem Cells?

In Stem Cells technology is needed to be able to take existing genes and put them into other cells so that they can behave like stem cells. Technologies stated before are used to help achieve that process. Some scientists have stated that they have achieved the process of making stem cells by just using a machine to put enough pressure on the cell to make them change back, but their findings are invalid and not legible at this moment.

How is the Human Genome helpful for Stem Cells?

Since the altering of humans is deemed illegal and immoral, the Human Genome is not that important. However Stem Cells have been used in humans before mostly for helping an egg get fertilized. This therefor won't break the rules but it is still sketchy.

Gene Therapy and Genomic Medicine

Gene tHerapy is introducing modified DNA into a cell of the patient to cure a disease.
What is Gene Therapy and Genomic Medicine?

These things are both ways to help cure diseases in patients through the use of using some modified DNA on a cell in the patient. It is accomplished in laboratories where the modified gene is placed in a cell from the patient to carry to the disease and remove it.

Is Gene Therapy and Genomic Medicine used today?

These processes are used today in hospitals in order to help cure diseases. They are still testing with using it more effectively since the process has been used to cure only certain diseases or mutations in the organism.

Benefits and Problems of Gene Therapy and a Genomic Medicine?

For all the benefits that gene therapy could have with helping curing diseases there are unfortunately too many problems with it to make it viable. The benefits are that basically you can cure diseases or mutations. Problems are that you have to be extremely careful to put the medicine in the right gene, you have to make sure the gene doesn't ruin other genes, it's really expensive to accomplish, you can only do it with certain diseases, and the list continues?

Designer Babies and Bioethics

Fun Fact: All robots in the movie Robots were all designer babies.
What is a Designer Baby?

A Designer Baby is a baby who's genetic makeup has been changed in the embryonic state so that the baby will turn out the way you want it look and behave when born. Doctors do this through and operation where certain enzymes are put into the cell to kill or alter DNA of the child.

Are Designer Babies still made today?

Designer Babies are still made today for parents to have and give birth to so that they can expect what will happen to their child. There are websites and companies that offer this to new parents on the internet, and allow for them to have these. Doctors will follow these companies and will do the operation to allow for your Designer Baby to come alive.

Are there any ethical issues with Designer Babies?

Designer Babies are an extreme controversy in today with it going against many religions and is almost borderline with it going against modifying humans and doing tests on them. People see it as very immoral and the child can sometimes not even come out properly resulting in its death or seriously harm the woman.


These mice now run away from the good smelling food due to the change in their genes from Epigenetics
What is Epigenetics?

Epigenetics is the study of specific and precise chemical reactions that happen that alter your genome and what may influence them.

Is Epigenetics used today?

Scientists today are studying how epigenetics work and what role they serve in the body. Scientists learned that they are used to determine the phenotype of a gene without changing the genotype of it. Epigenetics also serve a role in human disorders and diseases by these gene changes they make.

How is the Human Genome helpful with Epigenetics?

Epigenetics can show changes in humans by inheriting the same traits of previous generations. Knowing the genes and what changed about them can help further studies in Epigenetics and how we can use them. It can also fix any mutations that Epigenetics may cause to the invidivual.

DNA Fingerprinting and Crime Scene Investigation

Cops use this process to identify criminals
What is DNA Fingerprinting?

A DNA Fingerprint is a your own unique pattern of swirls and lines on your fingers that police use to identify you as you, since every person is different in their own way. How to get a DNA Fingerprint is by taking a sample of the DNA left behind whether it is blood or the fingerprint. They then go through an intense process of extracting the DNA and then can identify a person.

Is DNA Fingerprinting used today?

DNA Fingerprinting is used today and is used a lot for identifying an individual. DNA Fingerprinting is a process for mostly the police to use in order for them to identify a criminal of a crime who left his fingerprint. This allows them to capture the person with extreme precision to make sure they know they have the correct person.

Are there any ethical issues with DNA Fingerprinting?

No people are actually against the use of DNA Fingerprinting. If there were any issues with people being against DNA Fingerprinting it would be about the fact that people don't like the government holding their personal information without them being able to get it removed.

Benefits and Problems with DNA Fingerprinting?

DNA Fingerprinting has many benefits as it is very helpful in many situations. It can help solve crimes committed by criminals and identify them with 99.99% accuracy. It also provided a way to biologically identify someone. A problem though with it is that if the criminal has an identical twin, the twin could possibly be arrested as the criminal instead.

How is technology used for DNA Fingerprinting?

In order for police and scientists to accomplish the process of DNA Fingerprinting, certain technologies are required. In order to take the DNA they need either test tubes or packets to hold the DNA, then they need some enzymes to extract the DNA needed to identify someone. One big machine they use to help is gel electrophoresis which separates DNA. To store their results they use computers and databases.

How is the Human Genome helpful for DNA Fingerprinting?

The Human Genome is extremely helpful for people who are working with DNA Fingerprinting. They use the Human Genome to identify traits in this person that the criminal may have had. It can also show how the person may have acted before they committed the crime.

Personal Ancestry and Paternity Kits

These are pacKages that you can bUy at the sTore For you test you child's dna to yourself or spouse
What are Paternity Kits?

These Paternity Kits are for parents to buy in order to make sure that they are taking of their child. They use them by taking DNA and taking DNA from the parents to get confirmation it's their child.

Are Paternity Kits used today?

These kits are used today by many parents just to know if it's their child. They do this to make sure that a swap hasn't accidentally occurred and you don't have your baby. Most people are recommended to take one just to make sure. Some parents take one to know who's child they came from or were made with.

Benefits and Problems with Paternity Kits?

Paternity Kits seem like there could be nothing wrong with them but unfortunately there are some things. Some benefits firstly though, are that they can truely identify you as the parent of this child, and can tell who the other parent is as well. Some problems are though that you sometimes need both parents for it to be completely sure, and if you find out that the child you have isn't yours can make parents devastated, and telling the child may make him heartbroken to know that he's not with his real parents.

PCR and Gel Electrophoresis

Gel ElectoPhoresis is the process How dna fragments are being sEperated from each other.
What is PCR and Gel Electrophoresis?

PCR stands for Polymerase Chain Reaction, which is where you take a fragment of DNA and make multiple copies of it. Gel Electrophoresis is used with this, because it can separate fragments of this DNA into groups.

Is PCR and Gel Electrophoresis used today?

Both are used today and are both used for mostly DNA Fingerprinting tests. PCR can also be used by scientists in order for them to test variations of those genes. It is used to test for pathogens in DNA that may corrupt it in early stages of DNA sequencing.

Are there any ethical issues with PCR and Gel Electrophoresis?

This process of identifying people and copying DNA has no concerning ethical issues right now. People are ok this process and it isn't offending people or going against their morals.

Benefits and Problems with PCR and Gel Electrophoresis?

Some benefits exist with PCR and Gel Electrophoresis. With this you can separate DNA and and make multiple copies of it to test for further investigation. It allows for people to also make copies of DNA for people to use to recover from a certain disease, by using a gene that they don't have. This process also can take a very short time to getting copies of DNA, so no really big problems are with this subject.

How is technology used for PCR and Gel Electrophoresis?

For Gel Electrophoresis you need a specific machine in order for the process to even occur. You need to apply an electrical current to this gel like substance for the DNA to separate. In PCR you need a very heated environment for the copies of DNA to be multiplied.

How is the Human Genome helpful for PCR and Gel Electrophoresis?

The Human Genome is helpful for many reasons. With it you can effectively target specific genes that can be useful and separate them from the group. You can also multiply these genes so that they can be used for experimenting. Lastly the Human Genome is helpful in the fact that you can see variations in these genes and what their genetic code is from other forms.

Plasmids, Recombinant DNA, and Transgenic Organisms

These are examples of transgenic animals
What is a Transgenic Organism?

Transgenic Organisms are organisms that have some modified genetic code in every cell of their body. These organisms could technically be classified as a GMO since their genome has been modified. These organisms are made by just basic direct manipulation of a specific gene to modify them.

Are Transgenic Organisms used today?

Transgenic Organisms are used today for testing and also for selling. You could buy a transgenic organism from online or from a pet shop, because some of the fish have been modified. They are used to test the effects that changing certain genes on and off or modifying them may cause.

Are there any ethical issues with Transgenic Organisms?

There is some slight issues and problems that Transgenic Organisms have caused from people. They find these animals to be creations or mutants that shouldn't exist since this will not occur naturally in life. They think that scientists shouldn't test with animals since it may hurt them or kill them by messing with their genome.


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Ben Kasko

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