India and China Madelynn West & Parker Kummermehr

Main Religion of India

Hinduism

The oldest religion in the world; 84% of the country are Hindus; KNow as the "sanatan Dharma"or the everlasting religion; there is no specific founder; originated in India; About 950 million followers about 14% of the world's population

Deities:

Ganesha- God of knowledge, wisdom , and wealth. Shiva- represents death and dissolution, most powerful. Krishna-Influenced thought, life, and culture. Rama- symbol of chivalry and virtue. Hanuman- symbol of physical strength, perseverance , and devotion. Vishnu- sustainer of life with his princesses of order, righteousness, and truth. Lakshimi- means good lick, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. Durga- protector of the righteous and destroyer of the evel. Kali - fearful and ferocious. Sarawati- goddes of knowledge and learning.

4 Central Beliefs

Atman, Karma, and Samsara: Having and eternal self, such as a spirit (atman), immortal; When the temportarry body dies it will go through rebirth know as Smsara in which the spirit goes to heaven or hell; Karma determines how the Atman will be reborn in the next life

Dharma: the righteous way of living: describes the duties people have in life, it also refers to how the universe works; Children have different duties that adults. Men have different duties than women

Vedas: The most ancient religious texts to Hindus. Believed to be Gods words

Brahman and God: Brahman is a power throughout the universe; Belief in God, a God who can manifest in many different forms

Development of Written Language

developed in the Indus Valley round 2600BC. Still untranslated. Brahmi and Kharosthi were developed for official and laocal languages.

Currrent two spoken Languages

Hindi (420 million). English (widely Spoken)

Cuurent written Language

Devanagari alphabet which was originally used to Sanskrit.

Historical Scientific Achievments

The discovery of zero, a discovery that taught the world how to count; the world how to count; the introduction of the atom theory was brought up by maharishi Kanad; Diamond mining

Caste System- Origins and History

Brahma, a four headed, four handed deity who is worshipped as the creator of the universe; Brahma's manifestation of four groups;; Priests and teachers were cast from his mouth; rulers and warriors from his arms; merchants and traders from his thighs; workers and peasants from his feet. Manusmriti was the most important and authoritative book that acknowledges and justifies the caste system as the basis of order and regularity of society. The upper and lower castes almost always lived in segregated colonies. 1 Brahmins 2 Kshatriyas 3 Vaishyas 4 Shudras. Could only marry someone within their own caste system

3 Central Beliefs of the Caste System

1- Reincarnation 2- Law of Kharma 3-Believed in doing sacrifices to help them

Historical Role of Women

The Rig Vedic women enjoyed a high status in society; were provided opportunity to attain high intellectual and spiritual standard; started to be discriminated in education and other rights; had child marriages, widow burning; and polygamy worsened; were equaled with property; were not free to go anywhere without husband's permission; Davadasi system (forced prostitution before puberty for the upper-class) was becoming widespread

Importance of Family

Family integrity, loyalty, and unity is emphasized in India. The Joint family is the ideal and desired family, when everyone helps the widowed, unmarried, and elders. The whole family live together and shares interests, income, and food.

Social Mobility

A relatively high degree of social mobility among urban residents, about 26% of sons whose fathers were in the lowest caste. Only around 10% of the sons of fathers in the lowest occupational class could achieve the highest two occupational classes.

Monsoon

the seasonal wind of the Indian ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in the summer and Northeast in winter. They carry fresh water to many farmers; is the main water source for 55% of the country's land; Without the monsoon it used to lead to a year full of bad famine and death

What country colonized and controlled India?

Britain was the dominant European power in India; Towards the 17th century India becamse the focal point of the East India Companies trade

When did Britain first arrive in India?

In 1763 Britain came to India

When did Britain take control of India?

1858

How long was Britain in charge of India?

For nearly 200 years. signed treaties and made military trading alliance with many independent states in India. Kept local princes in charge of the states and gave them stuff back in return. The British took control of Indian because they had commercial and financial interests and opportunities within their religion.

When did India gain its independs?

August 15, 1947

How did India gain its independence back?

The British house of commons passed the Indian independence act, which divided India into two dominions: India and Pakistan.

Who was the pivotal figure in India's Independence?

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pivotal figures, if not the main figure, India's Independence in 1947.

Current Population

1,319,577,968

Current rank by GDP

3rd. GDP: 2,250,990

Current Government

Name: Republic of India Title; Federal Parliamentary Republic Leader: Prime minister is Narendra Modi; he focuses on reforming India's infrastructure and government. A controversial figure internationally

Current Place and Effects of the Caste System

Effects

Caused difficulties in national unity; it stood against democracy; resulted in suppression; It hampered national development; resulted in treachery and the ultimate fall of the Hindus; Religious conversion; Gave a lower status to women

Current Place

No discrimination towards people because of their case (legally forbidden); More flexible now, lower castes can move up to the higher castes

Role of Women Today

Held in high esteem; Equal to men in all respects

Major Struggle India is Facing

Water resources - flood control and Maintenance

China

Main Religion is Buddhism

Jian Zhen is the founder who traveled to spread Buddhism in 1618; Brought to China 2000 years ago; Slowly, widely accepted by most; Han, Tibetan, and southern Buddhism; It influences the local culture in literature, art, and ideology

Country of Orgin

Originated from India

Central Deities

Monkey, Guan_Yu, Jade-Emperor, Eight-Immortals, Yen-Lo-Wang, Guan-Yin, Ao-chin, Nu-Gua, Cao-Guojiu, Lan-Caihe.

Current Number of Practitioners

488 Million people

4 Main Beliefs

Existence is suffering (Dukkha), Suffering has a cause namely craving and attachment (Trishna). Cessation of suffering (hirvana). A path to the cessation of suffering (eightfold path)

Scientific discoveries in China

Mechanical clock: created by Yi Xing in the Tang Dynasty. Iron and steel smelting during he Zhou Dynasty/ Porcelain was invented in the Shang Dynasty.

Development of Written Language

The first recognizable form of writing dates back 3500 years. The earliest form was called oracle bone script which was written in bones and on bones.

Development of Written Language

The first recognizable form of writing dates back 3500 years

The earliest form was called orable bone script which was written in bones and on bones

Current Written Languages

Mandarin and Cantonese

Confuciansim Origins and Religion

Originated in China; Formed in 500 BCE; 5,000,000 followers

3 Central Core Beliefs

Maintain a sense of doing what is right

Serve their superiors diligently and loyally

Display benevolence towards others

Historical Role of Women and their Treatment

Were only brought up in history if they caused problems

Women were "yin" which meant soft, yielding, receptive, passive, reflective, and tranquil

Oppressed

Treated as inferiors since birth

Current Role of Women and Their Treatment

Treated as prostitutes

Work in food and keeping home clean

Importance of family vs. Individual

a key component in Chinese society

Relationships were centered around family

China emphasizes one's power from the external authorites of power

Social Mobility

Men were the top, in Charge of everyone

Women were condisdered servants and sometimes did not reveive names

The Importance of the Yellow and Yangtze River

Yellow: Usually a source of rich fertile soil and irrigation water; has destroyed entire villages; used for agriculture, transportation, and even a weapon

Yangtze: Rich fertile soil, transportation, good for crops and produce; Connects East and West China together to provide transportation of people and goods

What country colonized and controlled China?

Great Britain

When did they colonizing count first arrive in China?

During the 19th century

When did they take over of China?

During the 19th century

How long, and in what way was China controlled?

From 1841 to 1949. To crush opposition to its interference in the country’s economic and political affairs

What was the main reason that China was colonized?

There was a high demand for the tea, silk, and porcelain- the british did not have enough silver to trade.

When did China gain its independence?

October 1, 1949

How did China gain its independence?

Major cities and towns became communist then founded the people’s republic of China.

Who was China’s pivotal figure for independence?

Mao Zedong

Current effects of Confucianism in China

Taught social values and concepts. Established churches and schools

What role do women have today?

Depends on where they are in social boundaries. Many women are beginning to scrutinize their role in society

Chinas one child policy and its effects

Caused China to allow two children because one child policy was slowing the economy

One widespread challenge that China is facing today

There is a gender imbalance due to the fact that they have abortions on children if they are not the right gender

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