Main Religion of India
The oldest religion in the world; 84% of the country are Hindus; KNow as the "sanatan Dharma"or the everlasting religion; there is no specific founder; originated in India; About 950 million followers about 14% of the world's population
Ganesha- God of knowledge, wisdom , and wealth. Shiva- represents death and dissolution, most powerful. Krishna-Influenced thought, life, and culture. Rama- symbol of chivalry and virtue. Hanuman- symbol of physical strength, perseverance , and devotion. Vishnu- sustainer of life with his princesses of order, righteousness, and truth. Lakshimi- means good lick, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. Durga- protector of the righteous and destroyer of the evel. Kali - fearful and ferocious. Sarawati- goddes of knowledge and learning.
4 Central Beliefs
Atman, Karma, and Samsara: Having and eternal self, such as a spirit (atman), immortal; When the temportarry body dies it will go through rebirth know as Smsara in which the spirit goes to heaven or hell; Karma determines how the Atman will be reborn in the next life
Dharma: the righteous way of living: describes the duties people have in life, it also refers to how the universe works; Children have different duties that adults. Men have different duties than women
Vedas: The most ancient religious texts to Hindus. Believed to be Gods words
Brahman and God: Brahman is a power throughout the universe; Belief in God, a God who can manifest in many different forms
Development of Written Language
developed in the Indus Valley round 2600BC. Still untranslated. Brahmi and Kharosthi were developed for official and laocal languages.
Currrent two spoken Languages
Hindi (420 million). English (widely Spoken)
Cuurent written Language
Devanagari alphabet which was originally used to Sanskrit.
Historical Scientific Achievments
The discovery of zero, a discovery that taught the world how to count; the world how to count; the introduction of the atom theory was brought up by maharishi Kanad; Diamond mining
Caste System- Origins and History
Brahma, a four headed, four handed deity who is worshipped as the creator of the universe; Brahma's manifestation of four groups;; Priests and teachers were cast from his mouth; rulers and warriors from his arms; merchants and traders from his thighs; workers and peasants from his feet. Manusmriti was the most important and authoritative book that acknowledges and justifies the caste system as the basis of order and regularity of society. The upper and lower castes almost always lived in segregated colonies. 1 Brahmins 2 Kshatriyas 3 Vaishyas 4 Shudras. Could only marry someone within their own caste system
3 Central Beliefs of the Caste System
1- Reincarnation 2- Law of Kharma 3-Believed in doing sacrifices to help them
Historical Role of Women
The Rig Vedic women enjoyed a high status in society; were provided opportunity to attain high intellectual and spiritual standard; started to be discriminated in education and other rights; had child marriages, widow burning; and polygamy worsened; were equaled with property; were not free to go anywhere without husband's permission; Davadasi system (forced prostitution before puberty for the upper-class) was becoming widespread
Importance of Family
Family integrity, loyalty, and unity is emphasized in India. The Joint family is the ideal and desired family, when everyone helps the widowed, unmarried, and elders. The whole family live together and shares interests, income, and food.
A relatively high degree of social mobility among urban residents, about 26% of sons whose fathers were in the lowest caste. Only around 10% of the sons of fathers in the lowest occupational class could achieve the highest two occupational classes.
the seasonal wind of the Indian ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in the summer and Northeast in winter. They carry fresh water to many farmers; is the main water source for 55% of the country's land; Without the monsoon it used to lead to a year full of bad famine and death
What country colonized and controlled India?
Britain was the dominant European power in India; Towards the 17th century India becamse the focal point of the East India Companies trade
When did Britain first arrive in India?
In 1763 Britain came to India
When did Britain take control of India?
How long was Britain in charge of India?
For nearly 200 years. signed treaties and made military trading alliance with many independent states in India. Kept local princes in charge of the states and gave them stuff back in return. The British took control of Indian because they had commercial and financial interests and opportunities within their religion.
When did India gain its independs?
August 15, 1947
How did India gain its independence back?
The British house of commons passed the Indian independence act, which divided India into two dominions: India and Pakistan.
Who was the pivotal figure in India's Independence?
Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pivotal figures, if not the main figure, India's Independence in 1947.
Current rank by GDP
3rd. GDP: 2,250,990
Name: Republic of India Title; Federal Parliamentary Republic Leader: Prime minister is Narendra Modi; he focuses on reforming India's infrastructure and government. A controversial figure internationally
Current Place and Effects of the Caste System
Caused difficulties in national unity; it stood against democracy; resulted in suppression; It hampered national development; resulted in treachery and the ultimate fall of the Hindus; Religious conversion; Gave a lower status to women
No discrimination towards people because of their case (legally forbidden); More flexible now, lower castes can move up to the higher castes
Role of Women Today
Held in high esteem; Equal to men in all respects
Major Struggle India is Facing
Water resources - flood control and Maintenance
Main Religion is Buddhism
Jian Zhen is the founder who traveled to spread Buddhism in 1618; Brought to China 2000 years ago; Slowly, widely accepted by most; Han, Tibetan, and southern Buddhism; It influences the local culture in literature, art, and ideology
Country of Orgin
Originated from India
Monkey, Guan_Yu, Jade-Emperor, Eight-Immortals, Yen-Lo-Wang, Guan-Yin, Ao-chin, Nu-Gua, Cao-Guojiu, Lan-Caihe.
Current Number of Practitioners
488 Million people
4 Main Beliefs
Existence is suffering (Dukkha), Suffering has a cause namely craving and attachment (Trishna). Cessation of suffering (hirvana). A path to the cessation of suffering (eightfold path)
Scientific discoveries in China
Mechanical clock: created by Yi Xing in the Tang Dynasty. Iron and steel smelting during he Zhou Dynasty/ Porcelain was invented in the Shang Dynasty.
Development of Written Language
The first recognizable form of writing dates back 3500 years. The earliest form was called oracle bone script which was written in bones and on bones.
Development of Written Language
The first recognizable form of writing dates back 3500 years
The earliest form was called orable bone script which was written in bones and on bones
Current Written Languages
Mandarin and Cantonese
Confuciansim Origins and Religion
Originated in China; Formed in 500 BCE; 5,000,000 followers
3 Central Core Beliefs
Maintain a sense of doing what is right
Serve their superiors diligently and loyally
Display benevolence towards others
Historical Role of Women and their Treatment
Were only brought up in history if they caused problems
Women were "yin" which meant soft, yielding, receptive, passive, reflective, and tranquil
Treated as inferiors since birth
Current Role of Women and Their Treatment
Treated as prostitutes
Work in food and keeping home clean
Importance of family vs. Individual
a key component in Chinese society
Relationships were centered around family
China emphasizes one's power from the external authorites of power
Men were the top, in Charge of everyone
Women were condisdered servants and sometimes did not reveive names
The Importance of the Yellow and Yangtze River
Yellow: Usually a source of rich fertile soil and irrigation water; has destroyed entire villages; used for agriculture, transportation, and even a weapon
Yangtze: Rich fertile soil, transportation, good for crops and produce; Connects East and West China together to provide transportation of people and goods
What country colonized and controlled China?
When did they colonizing count first arrive in China?
During the 19th century
When did they take over of China?
During the 19th century
How long, and in what way was China controlled?
From 1841 to 1949. To crush opposition to its interference in the country’s economic and political affairs
What was the main reason that China was colonized?
There was a high demand for the tea, silk, and porcelain- the british did not have enough silver to trade.
When did China gain its independence?
October 1, 1949
How did China gain its independence?
Major cities and towns became communist then founded the people’s republic of China.
Who was China’s pivotal figure for independence?
Current effects of Confucianism in China
Taught social values and concepts. Established churches and schools
What role do women have today?
Depends on where they are in social boundaries. Many women are beginning to scrutinize their role in society
Chinas one child policy and its effects
Caused China to allow two children because one child policy was slowing the economy
One widespread challenge that China is facing today
There is a gender imbalance due to the fact that they have abortions on children if they are not the right gender