Alexander the Great The rise and fall of an empire

Alexander the great (336-323 BC) was the greatest conqueror of the ancient world. He was the son of Philip II. Born in a place called Macedon, which was nearly regarded as a barbarian town to the Greeks of the time.
In 343 BC Aristotle was summoned by king Philip to teach his son, Alexander. Alexander would be taught by the great philosopher for seven years, until the point when Alexander would succeed his father on the throne. Aristotle instructed him in the subjects of politics, medicine, and natural philosophy, in addition to these Alexander also studied the writings of playwright Homer.
Macedon had been a victim of the Persian wars with Darius and Xerxes. Philip desired to liberate Macedon and all the Greek city-states in Asia Minor that had been effected. After Alexander the Great rose to power he wished to go further than his father and conquer all of Greece in its poor state from the Peloponnesian War. From there he decided to invade to the east with intent to crush Persia once and for all.
In 336 Alexander had take the throne. Within two years he had already taken control of Greece due to its poor state as a result of the Peloponnesian Wars. In 334 BC he sent 34,000 troops through Asia Minor and conquered present day Turkey, Sryia, and Palestine. Alexander and his men never lost a battle.
The Greeks developed more advanced methods of combat. The Phalanx was an infantry unit that would work as one unit and charge the front lines in battle. Alexander combined the Phalanx infantry along with a Cavalry that rode in the back. Alexander destroyed the Persian navy in Egypt, allowing him to push through the mainland without fear of naval attacks back home.
After Alexander had advanced far enough Darius III fled, and was eventually killed by a tribal chieftain. Alexander did not stop with the capture of the Persian empire but decided to press on into India. However, when his men saw the Indian War Elephants they refused to go any further, and threatened to mutiny if forced. From here Alexander and his army returned back home.
Under Alexander the Great's rule he established the city of Alexandria. The city contained The Great Library which allegedly had 500,000 books. Another feat was that the empire had been united in one form of Greek, known as Koine, or Common. Alexandria had scientists who studied anatomy, astronomy, and geology. After the Romans conquered the empire such practices faded away until the Renaissance Era.
The conquest and establishment of Alexander's empire was the greatest accomplishment ever seen in the ancient world. It is not entirely clear what vision he had for the future because he died at the young age of 33 in 323 BC from an illness. However, it appears as if his goal may have been to unite and globalize his empire. He forced his generals to take Persian wives, and he himself also took a Persian wife.
After his death the empire split into four kingdoms led by his generals. Because of the split the empire was again divided, and therefore not as strong as when it was united. Eventually Egypt again was under Pharaoh rule. Warring broke out among these kingdoms, leaving them in the same situation of the Greek city-states that predated Alexander's empire.


Created with images by Tilemahos Efthimiadis - "Alexander the Great" • The Art of Nature... - "Alexander the Great on his Steed"

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