ISO is a cameras sensitivity to light, which gets its name from 'The International Standards Organisation), a industry scale for measuring the cameras sensitivity to light. ISO often has a large range on most lenses, with the lowest setting making the image quite dark but no grainy, whereas the highest setting will be quite bright but also very grainy. ISO can be helpful if the location your in is quite dark but graininess can often ruin a photo. Here are some examples of how ISO can change a photo:
Shutter speed is the speed in which the shutter in front of the sensor opens and closes. This is used to either capture an event that is quite quick (e.g. sports) or to effectively manipulate motion blur. These an give very different effects, as shown below:
Exposure is the term for light hitting the film or the sensor, determined by shutter speed, aperture and ISO. The term would be used in a sentence like so: " A good photo needs to be of the correct exposure".
Composition is the use of framing and other effects in photography. These can include symmetry and framing (using the on screen grid) and other techniques to make your image look more aesthetically pleasing.
Lighting is controlling the brightness of a subject without changing the settings on the camera using artificial light. Here are examples of controlling lighting with the subject being an egg:
We were tasked with gathering 10 pictures on a topic. I picked the topic 'Pattern and Texture' and tried to change depth of field and shutter speed, although only a few worked (I was quite close to the subject).