Planning for D-Day
- Planning for D-Day required several years.
- The Trident, Quadrant, Sextant, and Eureka Conferences made and reviewed these plans.
- Normandy was chosen as the target to invade Nazi Germany because it had expansion options, better air support, and was less heavily guarded.
- The Allies chose Dwight D. Eisenhower as the commander for Operation Overlord, which was the plan for invading Nazi Germany.
- Adolf Hitler appointed Erwin Rommel to be in charge of building the sea wall around expected invasions points.
- The U.S. used deception tactics, such as fake radio transmissions, to confuse the Germans on when and where the attack would take place.
- The allies had bombings take place before the invasion to slow down the Germans on their counter attacks and communications.
- Along Normandy, there were concrete gun emplacements, metal tripods, mines, and other obstacles to delay invasion advancements.
- The countries that were part of the allied invasion were mostly America, The U.K., and Canada. They also included Australia, Czechoslovakia, Belgim, France , Greece, The Netherlands, New Zeland, Norway, and Poland to a smaller extent.
- Eisenhower originally selected the fifth of June, but was delayed until the sixth because of weather conditions.
- That time frame was chosen because of the tides, and delaying would mean having to wait two more weeks.
- Many landing crafts and paratroopers were blown off course from their destination on D-Day.
The Night Before
- The night before D-Day, the allies sent bombers and paratroopers behind enemy lines to destroy obstacles on the beach. They also destroyed things such as bridges in order to slow counter attacks.
- The allies also targeted German aircraft facilities in an attempt to cripple the Luftwaffe, the Nazi Airforce, and establish air superiority.
- This was essential in making sure the amphibious landings were successful.
- The Allies deployed more than 10,000 paratroopers.
- Many paratroopers died or didn't land in the correct location.
- These preparations were successful in confusing German officers.
- Omaha Beach was a crucial capture because it linked the targeted Brittish and American beaches.
- This would be an American target.
- Omaha was an easily defendable beach because of obstacles, such as tall cliffs.
- Over 2,000 Americans died, making Omaha Beach the site of the most casualties.
- D-Day allowed the allies to gain a foothold in continental Europe.
- At the end of the day there were over 156,000 troops in France, and a week later -when the Allies seized control of the beaches- they had 326,000 troops, 50,000 vehicles, and 100,000 tons of equipment in Normandy.
- This would result in the Nazis having to fight on two fronts because Russia was advancing from the East.
- German casualties ranged from 4,000 to 9,000 men.
- Allied casualties ranged around 10,000.
- Civilian casualties ranged around 3,000.
- Aound 160,000 allied troops were involved in D-Day.
- The coast of Normandy is fifty miles long.
- The D in D-Day is not something like "Dooms" instead it is just means day.
- Medal of Honor recipients were Private W. Carlton Barrett, First Lieutenant Jimmy W. Monteith Jr., Technician Fifth Grade John Jay Pinder Jr., and Brigader General Theodore Rosevelt Jr..
- D-Day was the largest amphibious invasion in history.