President's Notes by: Johnathan j. Martinez


  • Cabinet Members: Henry Knox, Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Randolph, Alexander Hamilton, and George Washington
  • Washington chose carefully. He ​picked Alexander Hamilton as secretary of ​the treasury and Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state. Henry Knox served as secretary ​of war
  • Judiciary Act of 1789. This act created three levels of ​federal courts and defined their powers and ​relationship to the state courts. It set up ​federal district courts and circuit courts of ​appeals. Washington nominated candidates ​for federal judgeships. Those candidates then ​had to be approved or rejected by the Senate. ​Washington wrote about the importance of ​these duties​​
  • On July 14, 1789 the french people rebelled against their king. The French people overthrew their king and created ​a republican government. ​​
  • Washington made The Neutrality Proclamation ​stated that ​​the United States would not take sides with ​any European countries that were at war. ​Washington believed his plan was the safest ​for the long run, but not everyone agreed. ​​Some members of Congress criticized ​Washington’s ideas. James Madison believed ​that the president had gone beyond his ​authority. He questioned Washington’s right ​to issue the proclamation without the ​approval of Congress.
  • Jay’s Treaty ​settled the disputes ​​that had arisen between the United States and ​Great Britain in the early 1790s. The British ​would pay damages on seized American ships ​and abandon their forts on the northwestern ​frontier. The United States agreed to pay debts ​it owed the British.
  • In October 1795, Godoy agreed to ​Pinckney’s Treaty, which settled the border and trade disputes with Spain. Under the ​treaty Spain agreed to recognize the U.S. ​southern boundary as 31˚N latitude. Spain’s ​government also reopened the port at ​​New Orleans to American ships and gave them ​the right of deposit. Because it opened the ​frontier to more expansion, Washington and ​most other Americans believed that Pinckney’s ​Treaty was a successful compromise.
  • The complaints of western Pennsylvanians ​were at first expressed peacefully. But by 1794 ​fighting had broken out. In what became ​known as the Whiskey Rebellion, farmers ​​lashed out against the tax on whiskey. Protest​ers refused to pay the tax. They even tarred ​and feathered tax collectors. Some called ​themselves the new Sons of Liberty.
  • In 1796 Washington decided not to run for a ​third presidential term. He wrote that he was ​“tired of public life” and “devoutly [strongly] ​wished for retirement. With the help of Alexander Hamilton ​and James Madison, Washington wrote his ​Farewell Address.In it he spoke about what ​he believed were the greatest dangers to the ​American republic. Among these were the ​dangers of foreign ties and political conflicts at home. Washington warned against ​forming permanent ties with other countries because choosing sides could draw the ​United States into war. The nation would try ​to follow a course of non-involvement for ​another century, but some involvement with ​other governments seemed unavoidable.He also worried about growing political conflicts within the nation. Washington ​believed that disagreements between political ​​groups weakened government. Political unity,he said, was a key to national success. Washington left office warning the nation to workout its differences and protect its independence. Washington also warned against too much public debt. He thought the government should try not to borrow money. He wanted future generations to be protected from debt.He concluded his speech by looking forward to his retirement and praising his country. “I anticipate . . . the sweet enjoyment . . . of good laws under a free government, the ever favorite object of my heart.”

John Adamas

  • John Adams and Thomas Pinckney were for the Federalist Party, and Alexander Hamilton helped fund the party.
  • In the end, Adams defeated Jefferson. At the time, the person who came in second in a presidential election became vice president. So, after months of campaigning against one another, Adams and Jefferson took office together.
  • The WXY affair is when the french demanded for a bribe of 250,00 and give the government a loan of 12 million.
  • The Acts are laws passed by a federalist dominated Congress aimed at protecting the government from treasonous ideas, actions, and people.
  • the 25 amendment created a separate ballot president and vice president.
  • Established the supreme court's power to check the power of the other branches of government

Thomas Jefferson

  • Third president he was also Dem-Republican
  • He wanted to have limited government and protect civil liberties
  • the twelfth amendment stopped Burr from from being his Vice-president
  • Because of the issue,there was a controversy once Jefferson took over office and this led them to many other issues over judicial review.
  • The Lewis and Clark expedition took place because the president asked congress to fund an expedition to explore westward. They explored the Louisiana Purchase. By exploring, they expanded the territory of the US.
  • The Piracy and Embargo act: Essentially banned trade with all foreign countries. The new act, which was the "Non-Intercouser Act," banned trade only with Britain, France, and their colonies.

The Louisiana Purchase

  • Purchased during, Jefferson term
  • The city of New Orleans was an important port for trading and shipments, and the Mississippi River was used for shipping manufactured goods.
  • Napoleon's strategy was to use the French colony of Haiti,in the Caribbean,as supply base. From there he could send troops to Louisianan. Before the land was sold,Spain closed New Orleans to America Shipping. Angry farmers couldn't make any shipments.
  • The deal for The Louisianan territory for $15 million was made on April 30, 1803 by Napoleon Bonaparte. He made the deal because he needed money for illiteracy Supplies and he hoped that a larger United States would challenge British power.
  • Pros: Doubled the size of the US, and they were able to explore to the westward and they could expand .
  • Cons: Since Jefferson didn't collect taxes, the purchase increased their Debt, and Native Americans were pushed back which caused more problems.

James Madison

  • Fourth Presiandent and he was a Repulican
  • Timeline - July 1812: War starts agist British, September 1813: US attacked and tried to break Britain's control of Lake Erie. US wins, Aug. & Dec. 1814: General Jackson attacked the Creek along the Tallapoosa River in Alabama. US wins, Jan. 1815:some 5,300 British troops attacked jackson's force of about 4,500. US wins, The Treaty of Ghent: Singed on December 24,2814. Ended the war of 1812. Result of war: When the war ended trade resumed, American manufacturing grew even more as the economy revived. Also people finally realized that federal government needed a national bank.
  • Marbury v. Madison- case that helped establish the Supreme courts, power of the other branches of government.

James Monroe

  • Fifth President he was a republican
  • When General Andrew Jackson overthrew the Spanish government in Florida, the Spanish decided to sell Florida to the US for $5 million instead of fighting.
  • The Monroe Doctrine- an exclusive of America policy warning European powers not to interfere with the Americans.
  • Missouri compromise- Settled the conflict that had arisen from Missouri's application for statehood. Henry Clay was the lawyer that convinced Congress to consider the Compromise.
  • Trade through New York Harbor boomed as goods flowed along the Erie Canal to oversea markets and back to settlers and cites in the west. Eraie Canal was located in New York

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