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微软与中共国军事院校合作研究人工智能 【中英对照翻译】

作者:Madhumita Murgia(伦敦)和 Yuan Yang(北京)

原文出处:《金融时报》,于2019年4月11日发表

翻译/简评:毛毛猫猫

校对:BZ

简评:

微软自1998年在北京建立微软亚洲研究院以来,就已经开始和中共国各相关研发机构开始合作,长期关注中共国科技战略的美国记者Bill Bishop曾抨击说,微软已经为中共国培养了好几代的人才。虽然微软声称微软公司在全球的研发旨在让更多的人从现代科技成果中受益,并强调相关研发活动都符合美国以及当地的法律,但随着去年来自中共国的有关论文披露了这家科技巨头与中共军方的合作关系,各界越来越对这些尖端技术可能被中共军方用于提升其军力感到非常忧虑。

证据表明,微软与中共军方共同开发的人工智能技术,将用于建设中共国内的监控系统,用共和党议员卢比奥的话说,微软这样做就成了中共政权的同伙,它有协助中国共产党进行侵犯人权的危险。中共军方对这些新兴技术的应用必然会对美国国家安全造成威胁。值得欣慰的是,美国政府正在重新审视美国企业和中共国贸易以及技术研发政策,期待对人工智能等敏感领域跨国合作的更严格的管理制度尽早出台。

近期关于微软的创始人比尔盖茨与新型冠状病毒的关系的言论也层出不穷。有新闻报道比尔盖茨基金于武汉大学有关系,并且他近年来一直提醒世界可能会有大流行病,所以即使他资助武汉病毒实验室研究病毒这也并不让我们震惊,但是他在这次中共病毒背后到底扮演了什么角色目前让大家深度怀疑。他仅仅是个无辜被中共欺骗的慈善赞助者?还是幕后黑手之一?我们拭目以待,希望真相早日出来。

Microsoft worked with Chinese military university on artificial intelligence

微软与中共国军事院校合作研究人工智能

Concerns raised on research that could be used for surveillance and censorship

可被用于监视和审查的研究引起了极大的关注

One of the co-authored papers described an artificial intelligence method to recreate detailed environmental maps by analyzing human faces, which experts say could have clear applications for surveillance and censorship © Reuters

其中一篇合著论文描述了一种可以通过分析人脸来重建详细的环境地图的人工智能技术。有关专家明确指出,这种技术可以被应用于实施监控和审查。©路透社

Microsoft has worked with a Chinese military-run university on artificial intelligence research that could be used for surveillance and censorship, a revelation that has sparked anger among China hawks on Capitol Hill.

微软已经与中共国的一所军事院校合作研究可用于实施监控和审查的人工智能技术。这一发现引起了国会山上反中共国的鹰派人士们的愤怒。

Three papers, published between March and November last year, were co-written by academics at Microsoft Research Asia in Beijing and researchers with affiliations to China’s National University of Defense Technology, which is controlled by China’s top military body, the Central Military Commission.

由北京“微软亚洲研究院”的学者与隶属于“中国国防科学技术大学”的研究人员合作撰写的三篇论文,分别于去年3月至11月之间陆续发表。而“中共国国防科学技术大学”是由中共国最高军事机构中央军事委员会控制的。

One of the papers described a new AI method to recreate detailed environmental maps by analyzing human faces, which experts say could have clear applications for surveillance and censorship.

其中一篇论文描述了一种新的人工智能技术,该技术可以通过分析人脸来重新创建详细的环境地图,有关专家明确指出,这种技术可以被用来实施监控和审查。

The paper acknowledges the system provides a better understanding of the surrounding environment “not viewed by the camera”, which can have a “variety of vision applications”.

该论文承认该系统可以更好地理解“相机无法看到”的周围环境,从而可以具有“多种视觉应用”。

Samm Sacks, a senior fellow at the think-tank New America and a China tech policy expert, said the papers raised “red flags because of the nature of the technology, the author affiliations, combined with what we know about how this technology is being deployed in China right now”.

“新美国”智库的资深研究员,中共国技术政策专家萨姆·萨克斯(Samm Sacks)表示,“因为这项技术的性质、作者背后的隶属关系、以及我们所了解的目前这项技术在中共国被使用的情况,我们有理由认为这些论文向我们提出了危险信号”。

“The [Chinese] government is using these technologies to build surveillance systems and to detain minorities [in Xinjiang],” Ms Sacks added.

萨克斯女士补充说:“(中共国)政府正在使用这些技术来建立监控系统并拘禁(新疆)的少数民族。”

The US government is debating whether research collaborations, particularly in sensitive areas such as artificial intelligence and augmented reality, should be subject to stricter export controls.

美国政府正在讨论在诸如人工智能和增强现实等敏感领域的合作研究是否应当受到更严格的出口管制。

After the Microsoft work was reported by the Financial Times, Senator Ted Cruz, the Texas Republican who has emerged as a leading China hawk, warned “we must ensure that American business interests are not enabling the [Chinese Communist party’s] oppression.”

继《金融时报》对微软(与中共国军事院校合作)的报道以后,已经成为反中共国的主要鹰派人士的德克萨斯州共和党参议员特德·克鲁兹(Ted Cruz)警告说:“我们必须确保美国的商业利益不会协助[中国共产党]的压迫。”

“American companies need to understand that doing business in China carries significant and deepening risk,” Mr Cruz added. “In addition to being targeted by the Chinese Communist party for espionage, American companies are increasingly at risk of boosting the Chinese Communist party’s human rights atrocities.”

克鲁兹补充说:“美国公司需要了解,在中共国开展业务会带来巨大且不断加深的风险。除了成为中共间谍的目标外,美国公司还越来越有可能成为加剧中共对人权暴行的帮凶。”

Microsoft defended the research, saying it was part of a worldwide effort by its scientists, who were often academics, to work with their international counterparts on cutting-edge technology issues.

微软为它的这项研究辩护称:这是他的科学家们的全球性合作的一部分,这些科学家通常是一些与他们的国际同行就尖端技术问题进行合作的学者。

“The research is guided by our principles, fully complies with US and local laws, and . . . is published to ensure transparency so that everyone can benefit from our work,” the company said.

微软说,“这项研究以我们的原则为指导,完全符合美国和当地法律,并且… 该出版物的发布是为了确保透明度,以便每个人都能从我们的工作中受益。”

But Adam Segal, director of cyber space policy at the Council on Foreign Relations think-tank, noted the revelation comes at a time US authorities, including the FBI, have put academic partnerships with Beijing “under the microscope” because of fears Chinese students and scientists working on “frontier technologies” may end up assisting China’s People’s Liberation Army.

但是担任美国“外交关系委员会”智库的网络空间政策计划主任亚当·西格尔(Adam Segal)指出,对微软(与中共国军事院校合作)的揭发是发生在美国当局,包括联邦调查局(FBI)将与北京的合作伙伴关系置于“显微镜下”的时候,原因是担心来自中共国的学生和从事“前沿技术”研究的科学家最终可能会协助中国人民解放军。

Last week, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology cut ties with telecoms group Huawei and launched an “elevated risk” review process for its Chinese collaborations.

上周,麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Institute)切断了与中共国的电信集团华为(Huawei)的关系,并为其与中共国的合作项目启动了“高风险”的审查程序。

Pedro Domingos, a professor of AI at the University of Washington, said the Microsoft paper on environmental mapping could provide crucial help to authorities seeking to monitor individuals.

华盛顿大学人工智能教授佩德罗·多明戈斯(Pedro Domingos)说,微软有关环境地图的论文可以为试图监控个人的权利机构提供关键帮助。

“Let’s suppose I’m an intelligence agency and I have pictures of people of interest,” said Mr Domingos. “I can use the system to tell something about the place they’re in that they didn’t realise they were giving away.”

多明戈斯先生说:“假设我是情报机构,并且有我感兴趣的人的照片,我可以使用该系统在被调查对象还没有意识到(个人信息已经被泄露)的情况下找到他们所处位置的一些信息。”

Microsoft’s research arm in Beijing has collaborated on at least two other papers with NUDT researchers, including in the area of machine reading — a way for computers to understand online text.

微软在北京的研究部门已经与“中国人民解放军国防科技大学”的研究人员至少还合作了其它的两篇论文,其中包括机器阅读领域,这是一种让计算机理解在线文本的技术。

“Machine reading comprehension may not seem directly concerning but it could be used for censorship, which is an interest of the Chinese government,” said Elsa Kania, a Chinese military technology expert and a fellow at the think-tank Center for a New American Security. “They see natural language processing as a way to enable censorship at scale.”

美国的中共国军事技术专家,“新美国安全中心”智库的研究员艾尔莎·卡尼亚(Elsa Kania)说:“机器的阅读理解能力似乎没有立马让人担忧,但这种技术可以用于审查,这是符合中共国政府利益的。他们将对自然语言的处理视为实现大规模审查的一种途径。”

The papers underscore Microsoft Research’s long-running links to Chinese military-funded academia, including its operation of several “tech clubs” for students at Chinese universities known to have military links including NUDT, Beihang University and Harbin Institute of Technology.

这些论文强调了微软研究院与中共国军方资助的学术界的长期联系,包括它为一些中共国大学的学生开设了多个“技术俱乐部”,而这些大学都与“中国人民解放军国防科技大学”,“北京航空航天大学”和“哈尔滨工业大学”有军事联系。

The US commerce department is seeking public comment to help identify emerging technologies that are essential to US national security because they may improve intelligence collection, weapons of mass destruction, have terrorist applications, or provide the US with a qualitative military or intelligence advantage, according to law firm White & Case.

来自White&Case律师事务所的消息称:美国商务部正在向公众征求意见,以帮助发现对于美国国家安全至关重要的新兴技术。这些技术可能会被用于改善情报收集、变成大规模杀伤性武器、被恐怖分子应用、或能为美国提供决定性的军事或情报优势。

“[These papers are] at the centre of a perfect storm with . . . issues top of mind as the US is redrawing its relationship with China,” said Ms Sacks.

萨克斯女士说:“美国正在重画与中共的关系,[这些论文]与...这期间的首要问题处于一场完美风暴的中心。”

“There is a massive overhaul of the export regime, and emerging and foundational technology, particularly AI, is a considered category under that,” she added. “Because this is open academic research, the question is to what extent is the Chinese government exploiting the openness . . . and extensive history of joint partnerships.”

她补充说:“我们对出口制度进行了全面改革。新兴技术和基础技术,尤其是人工智能,被认为是其中的一类。这是一个开放的学术研究领域,但问题在于中共国政府在多大程度上利用了我们的开放性… 和广泛的合作历史。”

Additional reporting by Christian Shepherd in London, Richard Waters in San Francisco and Kiran Stacey in Washington

请参考伦敦的Christian Shepherd,旧金山的Richard Waters和华盛顿的Kiran Stacey的其他报道

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】