General Austrian Info
- Total population: 8,700,000 (2015, WHO)
- Primary Language: 98% speak German
- Austria is a federal republic state with a parliamentary democracy, consisting of 9 independent federal regions.
- Austria is a member of the European Union & the United Nations.
- The six ethnic groups officially recognized in Austria are Burgenlandic Croatians, Roma, Slovaks, Slovenians, Czechs and Hungarians.
- Approximately 74% of Austrians are Roman Catholic, 5% are Protestant, the rest belongs to other faiths.
- Famous notable Austrians: Sigmund Freud, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Austrian World Rank & Health Statistics
- According to WHO, Austria ranks 9 of 191 world countries based on world health systems.
- Health care quality indicators are measurements of data collected from hospitals and health care centers that measure how effective the system is. (2016, WHO)
- Life expectancy at birth m/f (yrs, 2015): 79 /84
- Total expenditure on health per capita: 5,039
- Total expenditure on health as % of GDP (2014): 11.2
- # of neonatal deaths (based on the first 28 days) (per 1,000 births in 2002-2015): 0
- Neonatal mortality rate (per 1,000 live births 2002-2015): avg 2.4 (has been trending down etc 2.7 to 2.1)
- Morbidity rate (per 1,000 people): 9.2
- (All stats taken from l;2016, WHO)
- Main cause of death: Coronary Heart Disease (2015, IHME)
- Least cause of death: Schizophrenia & Malnutrition (2015, IHME)
Austria & USA: How do they compare?
- Austria is ranked 9th overall compared to the US who ranks at 37th overall. (2016, WHO)
- Population: in Austria 8.7M / in US 312M. (2016, WHO)
- Drivers in 4-wheeled cars and light vehicles caused 41% of deaths by road in Austria while it caused 50% in the United States. (2016, WHO)
- # of overweight and obese people (2013): in Austria 3.7M / in US 160M. (2015, WBG)
- Current adult cigarette smokers: in Austria 37% / in US 18%. (2016, WHO)
- Total % of alcohol consumed: in Austria 13% / in US 13% (Both in which beer is the most consumed at 50%) Legal drinking age: in Austria 16 / in US 21. (2016, WHO)
Health Care delivery practice
Austrians have a socialized health care system which provides universal coverage for everyone regardless of their age, sex, origin, social status or income. Everyone is guaranteed equitable access to high quality health services . Free choice of providers - patients choose their family physician. Unrestricted access - do not require a referral to see a specialist (Austrian Government, 2013).
Austria’s health programs are funded by different entities. The Federal Government and the nine provinces, and local governments through taxes and income-based social insurance contributions. The healthcare system is decentralized similar to the United States federalism. The sickness insurance fund known as Krankenkasse, insurance card covers not only healthcare, but pensions, and unemployment as well (Austrian Government, 2013).
What can we learn from them?
- Equitable healthcare access
- Lower healthcare costs
- Ability to choose any provide
- Limit unnecessary testing
Today, 99% of the Austrian population have health insurance. In 2010, total health spending accounted for 11% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Austria while the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average was 9.5% compared to the USA (17.6%). These costs were funded to (76.2%) by public sources (OECD average (72.2%), of which 50% had to be financed by health insurance funds. In 2011, (10.8%) of gross domestic product was spent on health. In comparison to the USA about (84%) of the population is covered by either public (26%) or private (70%) health insurance, of which approximately (61%) of health insurance coverage is employment related ( OECD, 2017).
Biggest Health Asset...
- Universal health care
Biggest health-related threat...
- Prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in young adult population.
Austria's Vulnerable Population
Austria's most vulnerable population is young people. Studies show a higher prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in young people.
Studies show prevalence in Austria = 33% high smoking rates in young adults
Male: 52% - Female :34%
16% of Austrian population show harmful levels of alcohol use / alcoholism
(Currie et. al. 2012)
Austria = "Ashtray of Europe"
- In 2015 - Federal government took initial steps to define national strategy for addiction prevention
- Strong determinant of smoking in young people: Unemployment
(Muttarak et. al. 2015)
- increase sale of cigarette tax
- ban cigarette sale to people under age 18
- ban smoking in public and workplaces
- comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion
- large direct health warning labels
- treatment to help smoker stop
(Joosens & Raw 2016)
Austrian, Government. (2013). The Austrian Healthcare System.Retrieved on April 07, 2017 from www.bmgf.gv.at/cms/home/attachments/3/4/4/CH1066/CMS1291414949078/austrian_health_care_key_facts_2013.pdf
Austria. Retrieved April 3, 2017, from http://www.who.int/countries/aut/en
Austria. Retrieved April 4, 2017, from http://data.worldbank.org/country/austria
Currie, C., Zanotti, C., Morgan, A., Currie, D., De Looze, M., Roberts, C., . . . Barnekow, V. (2012). Social determinants of heath and well-being among young people. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, 6, 2-7. doi:10.7554/elife.21715.014
Health at a Glance (2015). How does Austria compare? Retrieved on April 07, 2017 from https://www.oecd.org/austria/Health-at-a-Glance-2015-Key-Findings-AUSTRIA.pdf
Joossens, L., & Raw, M. (2016). The Tobacco Control Scale 2016 in Europe. Association of European Cancer Leagues, 1-28. doi:10.18411/d-2016-154
Muttarak, R., Steiber, N., & Gallus, S. (2015). Smoking ban in Austria: a long overdue step but still a lot to be done. The Lancet, 385. Retrieved from http://thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)60521-9/fulltext?rss%3Dyes
OECD (2017), Health spending (indicator). doi: 10.1787/8643de7e-en Retrieved on April 07, 2017 from https://data.oecd.org/healthres/health-spending.htm
Pichlhofer, O., & Maier, M. (2014). Unregulated access to health-care services is associated with overutilization--lessons from Austria. The European Journal of Public Health,25(3), 401-403. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cku189 Retrieved on April 09, 2017 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440448/
(2010, November 26). Domestic violence against women remains serious in Austria. Global Times (Beijing, China) Retrieved on April 08, 2017 from http://en.people.cn/90001/90777/90853/7211963.html