Anatomy & Physiology

WHAT IS ANATOMY

(ana- up/apart) (-tomy-incision)

Anatomy – is the study of the parts of the body.

The study of anatomy includes the names of the parts of the body and where they are located.

EXAMPLE

The different parts of the heart and where they are located in the heart

Physiology

Is the study of the function, or purpose, of body parts.

How blood travels through the heart and how each part of the heart works to make blood move.

AMAZING MACHINE

The human body is an amazing machine with many parts that work together to keep you alive and healthy.

Five Basic Building Blocks

There are five basic building blocks of the body. Going from smallest to largest they are:

Molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. Each building block forms the next, Molecules form cells. Cells form tissues. Tissues form organs and organs form organ systems.

EXAMPLE

The building blocks of the body are similar to the building blocks of an outfit (a set of clothes)

Molecule (form) Cell (form) Tissue (form) Organ (form) Organ System – Building blocks of the body.

Fibers (form) Threads (form) cloth (form) garments (form) outfit – Building blocks of an outfit.

MOLECULES

Molecules are the basic building block of all things, living and nonliving. Everything on Earth is comprised of molecules: paper, air, trees, soil, food, water, and the human body. Sugar, fat, water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are all examples of molecules found in the body.

CELLS

Cells are found in all living things. Nonliving things do not contain cells. Cells are comprised of groups of molecules. Most cells are too small for you to see with just your eyes; you need a microscope to see cells.

There are many different kinds of cells in the body: fat cells, muscle cells, blood cells, bone cells. What makes one cell different from another is that they are made of different kinds of molecules arranged in unique ways. Even though these cells have different functions in the body and look different from each other under a microscope, they all contain the same parts.

WHAT ARE CELLS FILLED IN WITH?

All cells are filled with cytoplasm, a jelly-like material. Cytoplasm holds many small cell parts, or organelles. All cells take in nutrients, such as sugar and oxygen and give off wastes, such as carbon dioxide. All nutrients and waste pass easily through the cell membrane, the “skin” of the cell. When it is easy for things to pass though a membrane, that membrane is called permeable.

EXCEPT RED BLOOD CELLS

for a red blood cell, has a nucleus. The nucleus controls the cell. It is like the cell’s brain. Molecules called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) are located in the nucleus. DNA contains information that tells the cell how to do its job, such as breaking apart a sugar or storing fat. DNA is also the genetic material that makes one person different from another. In effect, DNA is the cell’s instruction book.

REMEMBER

A cell is the basic unit of all living organisms, and that each type of cell has a different job to do within the body.

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