What is Hypopharyngeal Cancer?
It's a head and neck cancer, in which cancer cells form in the tissue of hypopharynx
What happens to the cells?
- Stage 0: Tis- cells grow in the inning lining layer NO- no evidence that cancer spread to the lymph nodes MO- The cancer has not spread to distant sites.
- Stage 1: T1-The tumor is only in 1 subsite of the hypopharynx and it is 2 centimeters. NO- no evidence that cancer spread to the lymph nodes MO- The cancer has not spread to distant sites.
- Stage 2: T2: The tumor in in 2 or more subsites of the hypopharynx. The tumor is in 1 subsite plus an area nearby. The tumor is more than 2 cm but not more than 4 cm, vocal cords move normally NO- no evidence that cancer spread to the lymph nodes MO- The cancer has not spread to distant sites.
- Stage 3: T3: tumor is larger than 4 cm across. The tumor is affecting the movement of vocal cords. The tumor has grown into the esophagus. NO & MO
- Stage 4: T4a: The tumor is growing into the fat in front of larynx NO, MO
- Stage 5: T4b: tumor is growing into the space in front of the spine in the neck Any N, MO
- Stage 6: Any T, Any M, M1: the cancer has spread to distant sites.
It generally affects the hypopharynx (throat), larynx (vocal cords), and other parts.
The mutated genes are unknown
Description of the symptoms
- change in voice
- sore throat that doesn't go away
- constant coughing
- Ear pain
- trouble swallowing
- weight loss
- lump or mass in the neck
Possible causes of Hypopharyngeal cancer
They're are some environmental factors that can cause this cancer and they are tobacco and heavy us of alcohol. Some health factors may include: smoking and chewing tobacco, human papillomavirus (HPV), lack of nutrients, and Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer can not be inherited
- Avoid being around smoke and stop smoking
- Avoid the combination of drinking and smoking
- Eat healthy
- Avoid HPV infection
- Laryngopharyngectomy: surgery to remove the voice box
- Partial laryngopharyngectomy: remove part of the voice box
- Neck dissection: remove lymph nodes and tissues in the neck
- External radiation therapy: machine that sends radiation toward the cancer
- Internal radiation therapy: needles, seeds, wires, that are placed near the cancer
- Chemotherapy: used to shrink the tumor before surgery
- physical exam of the throat
- CT scan (CAT scan)
- PET scan- find malignant tumor cells in the body
- Bone scan- check if there are rapidilty dividing cells ( cancer cells in the bone)
- Barium esophagogram- x-ray of the esophagus
- Endoscopy- look at unseen areas in the throat
- Esophagoscopy- look inside the esophagus to check for abnormal areas
- Bronchoscopy- look in side the trachea and large airway on the lung for abnormal areas
- Biopsy- removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope
People affected by it
More common for people who smoke and heavy and drink to get hypopharyngeal cancer
It's common only in people with bad habits such as smoking and drinking and people with bad eating habits