Renewing the Sectional Struggle chapter 18

The Popular Sovereignty Panacea

  • Two great political parties with vital bonds of National Unity were powerful in both the North and South.
  • Politicians found that "keeping the lid" on the Slavery issue and ignoring the pressure building up, was the wisest idea.
  • The Democrats were forced to search for a new bearer in 1848, which ended up being General Lewis Cass, a war veteran of the war in 1812.
  • Cass wasn't shy when he discussed his well known views of slavery; because he was the reputed father of popular sovereignty, the people themselves determined the status of slavery

Political Triumphs for General Taylor

  • The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor, who didn't vote for president or hold civil office. Henry Clay, logically, logically should've nominated instead.
  • The Whigs were cautious with their actions, hoping that they could easily elect Zachary at any cost.
  • Neither major party talked about the slavery issue, yet Taylor barely won.

"Californy Gold"

  • The Discovery of Gold allowed the Slavery issue to blow the cover off early in 1848; crime came with it of so many miscreants and outcasts.
  • Most civilians headed towards the Gold Rush found gold. Those who didn't became broke to the point where they got their clothes washed in Hawaii.
  • Many of the "Forty-Niners" flopped in California, yet kept chasing the dream of gold to distant places like such as Australia in 1851.

Sectional Balance and The Underground

  • In 1850 the was starting out well, allowing the south to believe that slavery was not seriously threatened.
  • The south soon began to worry due to the fact that slave states and free states were entering an equilibrium. 15 slave states and 15 free states.
  • Admission of California would rupture the delicate balance in the Senate.

Twilight of the Senatorial Giants

  • The Southerners were voicing their threats to the union about succession and withdrawing from the Union making the means of the United States failure.
  • Henry Clay or "The Great Compromise" came to the Senate from Kentucky to play a role that was important, and that role was the persuasiveness that the North and South Make concessions and the North partially yield by enacting a more feasible fugitive-slave law.
  • John C. Calhoun the great Nullifier was dying but believed that the south should be left alone but have their own president to represent them.
  • Daniel Webster came and tried including a new fugitive slave law with teeth and Webster had a Seventh of March speech of 1850 that he mailed out more than 100,000 remarking 200,000 would not satisfy that demand.

Deadlock and Danger on Capitol Hill

  • The newer group of leaders didn’t want to fix or patch the Union instead purify it.
  • William H. Seward a spokesman for younger northern radicals spoke strong anti-slavery and said the it's a higher law than the constitution to exclude slavery in the territories costing him his presidency.
  • Zachary Taylor fell influence to the Higher Law Seward and seemed bent on vetoing any compromise passed by congress and appearing dodgy trying to jackonise the dissenters, the civil war may have erupted in 1850

Breaking the Congressional Logiam

  • Zachary Taylor at this point dies and Millard Fillmore takes the Reins as president, the president was impressed with the arguments for conciliation and gladly signed the series of compromise measures passed by congress making the compromise of 1850.
  • The measured accepted by the country were less heated than congress and the Northern Senators called Clay,Webster, and Douglas orated on the behalf of the compromise delivering 70 speeches as powerful sentiment for acceptance crystallizing north.
  • In June of 1850 the southern extremists in Nashville having strong positions in slavery and condemning the compromise , the southerns reluctantly accept the verdict of Congress.
  • Both the north and South believed that the determined compromises should be a finality and that the explosive issue with slavery should be buried.

Balancing the Compromise Scales

  • As California joined the north tipping the scales of senate balance permanently against the south and most countries like mexico or Utah were open to the slavery; the highest law of all ad loaded the dice in favour of free soil.
  • If the southerners wanted to rebalance the power they had to look for Slave territories and they looked towards the Caribbeans. The drastic new fugitive Slave Law of 1850 stirred up a storm of opposition in the North, slaves fleeing and willing to testify couldn't being denied a jury trial.
  • Citizens saw this as a dangerous precedents for white Americans. Commissioners who freed and helped got paid.An explosion chain reaction happened n the North for the abolitionists when a slave was captured.
  • The underground railroad wanted mobs to rescue the slaves that were fleeing, also delay at this time for the North allowed immensely moral strength to build and it will to fight for the union.

Defeat and Doom for the Whigs

  • The democrats tried to make Franklin Pierce stand out during the nominating convention, while the Whigs tried to toss him back into obscurity.Pierce as a figure was weak and indecisive, as young and serving without real distinction in the Mexican war.
  • Franklin Pierce was enemy-less at the time and was acceptable to the slavery wing of the Democratic Party, allowing the revival of commitment to territorial expansion. He endorsed the compromise of 1850 and all.
  • The Whigs were hopelessly split, and letting Pierce win by a landslide; the death of the Whigs ended the national political arguments giving rise to sectional political alignments.

Expansionist Stirrings South of the Border

  • Pierce tried to be another Polk, and impressed followers by reciting his inaugural address from memory, but his cabinet was filled with Southerners like Jefferson Davis and he was prepared to be a Southerner's’ tool.
  • In July of 1856, a brazen American adventurer, William Walker, grabbed control in Nicaragua and proclaimed himself president, than legalized slavery, but a coalition of Latin American states overthrew him. This threw some fuel on the “Slavocracy” theory
  • Both parties boasted about the Compromise of 1850, though the Democrats did boast more.
  • Northerners were outraged once this “secret” document was leaked, and the South could not get Cuba. Pierce was embarrassed and more fuel thrown on the Aristocracy theory.

The Allure of Asia

  • Having the acquisition of California and Oregon made the united states a pacific power or hopefully would be power. Americans were trying to tap into Asia for riches as British rivalry played a role also. Britain humbled china into opium wars fighting to secure the right of British traders to peddle opium in the Celestial Kingdom.
  • Over on the Pacific, America was ready to open to Asia.
  • The Chinese were welcoming to the British since they wanted to counter the British.
  • Relations opened up Japan when Commodore Matthew C. Perry steamed into the harbor of Tokyo in 1854 and asked /coerced/forced them to open up their nation

Pacific Railroad Promoters and the Gadsden Purchase

  • Though the U.S. owned California and Oregon, thus getting out there became a very difficult time, since the sea routes were taking way too long and the wagon route overland, so the only real feasible solution was to lay in a transcontinental railroad.
  • The Southerners wanted a route through the South, but the best one would go through Mexico, so Secretary of War Jefferson Davis arranged to have James Gadsden appointed minister to Mexico.
  • A northern railroad would be less effective since it would cross over mountains and cross through Indian territory.

Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska Scheme

  • To do this, Senator Stephen Douglas proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which would let slavery in Kansas and Nebraska be decided upon by popular sovereignty
  • The problem was that the Missouri Compromise had banned any slavery north of the 36∞30’ line, so the act would have to repeal it.
  • Southerners never thought of Kansas being a possible slave state, and thus started backing the bill, but Northerners rallied against it.

Congress Legislature Civil War

  • A measure passed by congress called the Kansas-Nebraska act was a curtain raiser to a terrible drama as it grazed the slippery slope for us into Civil War.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska act wrecked two compromises that were passed one in 1820 that repealed specifically and one in 1850 which Northern opinions repealed indirectly. The anti slavery sites were growing with numerous recruits and resented the grasping move by the slavocracy for Kansas. This inflamed southerner when the free soilers tried to control Kansas to the presumed deal they had.
  • The new republican party appeared sprang up spontaneously in the Midwest and most notably Wisconsin and Michigan as a mighty moral protest group against slavery.

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