Jaheem is a sixty year old man whom suffers with arthritis. He is an African man originally from Nigeria, who was a professional athlete. This booklet will describe the life development stages of Jaheem's life.
Jaheem at his peak of his athletic career.
Pre-natal Development- Conception to Birth.
Jaheem's mother, Nomusa conceived him in early September of 1956. Jaheem was the first baby of Nomusa, who went on to have five other babies.Nomusa conceived her first baby, Jaheem in September 1956. Nomusa was twenty-three when he was conceived and wanted the very best for her child. As a foetus Jaheem was exposed to certain teratogens as his mother was very poor causing her to live in poor conditions and suffer with malnutrition. Slayton, R (2015) states that malnutrition can be very serious in pregnancies as it can lead to further lasting issues on the child such as type two diabetes, heart disease and chronic kidney failure. Biologically this has affected Jaheem as he is type two diabetic and has to be very careful about what he eats and drinks to try maintain his health.
Whilst Nomusa was pregnant she also had further difficulties as her husband was severely poorly which caused her to feel further stress and anxiety. This could have affected Jaheem as a fetus, as his mother’s body would not have been working to the best of its ability.
Infancy- Toddlerhood: Zero- Two years
When Jaheem was an infant he was raised in a small village with limited resources and unclean environment. Jaheem’s mother tried her best to keep Jaheem as healthy and well cared for as possible however it was proven to be difficult and often meant she could not feed herself very well and her own health often suffered. Being after the war there was a huge rise of malnutrition and it was treated for as an epidemic infection. Unicef (unknown) stated that they medicated people with protein such as milk. Due to this lifestyle Jaheem could not reach certain growth and cognitive milestones as he should have and became socially inept.
Early Childhood: Two years- Six years.
As Jaheem entered early childhood he began to fall behind further in cognitive abilities and as he started school he found it hard to make friendship bonds and develop social skills. Slayton, R (2015) suggested that malnutrition in early years can lead to poor brain function and Jaheem may not have received enough nutrients in prenatal and infancy stages of development to develop his brain function.
Jaheem felt isolated and frustrated due to his mental ability and mentally suffered as he found it difficult to communicate his feelings to others. Physically, however Jaheem started to excel among his peers in games and activities. This gave him motivation to work hard in later years to develop himself further.
Middle Childhood: Six years- Eleven years.
Jaheem’s family life is growing as he has younger brothers and sisters, socially this has developed Jaheem as he plays an active part, being the older brother and helps his mother with daily tasks. This gives Jaheem a sense of responsibility and self satisfaction as he feels a significant part of the family unit.
In the nature versus nurture debate you could argue that Jaheem has learnt his behaviours through nurture as he made not have received the amount of care and affection from his mother in order to gain confidence to bring on his abilities such as cognitive, however Jaheem may have difficulties in certain abilities because of nature as malnutrition may have left lasting effects on him and caused him to biologically be the way that he is. This could mean that Jaheem only struggles with his abilities because of his genetics and his behaviours would have been the same regardless of his mothers influence on him. Hogben, L (1933) discusses how environments can change genetics even to a foetus depending on the mother during the prenatal stage for example. This suggests that although nature may shape an individual to begin with, nurture can take over and determine other behaviours and characteristics.
Jaheem lived in a small village where people would often come together and they could all depend on each other. This sort of culture made Jaheem feel very accepted and in turn made him much happier, however with this culture also came responsibility and Jaheem often had to help his community and work hard in order to help others. This is a massive strain for a young boy to take on and psychologically. NHS (2017) discusses how stress and anxiety can have major implications with their mental and emotional well being and in turn how it can affect self esteem and confidence. Jaheem is already quite lacking in self esteem and confidence and further stress can cause him to not want to try new things and could mean his progression in his milestones may still struggle to catch up with other children of his age.
Adolescence: Eleven years- Eighteen years.
Jaheem has now begun to think differently and can understand more about the world around him. Psychologically Jaheem starts to be affected by his mother’s behaviour as she is severely depressed and he can begin to understand how much she is struggling with home life and financial difficulties. In the adolescent years Jaheem will be struggling to cope with his own emotions very well however must adapt to his culture. This implies that the dynamic theory rather than the static theory is in effect as he has to mentally progress much quicker to adapt to his lifestyle and culture.
Jaheem is now progressing continuously, as socially he is steadily developing a higher maturity and gaining confidence. He has begun to make friendship groups and has begun to be much more independent and listen more to his peers than his mother. This can affect him as he now influenced more by other adolescents and less by his mother who has greater life skills and maturity, however as Jaheem has had to grow up faster than his peers he already has developed a higher level of maturity and can make more responsible choices.
Early Adulthood: Eighteen years- Forty years.
At the age of twenty Jaheem decided to move to America to be able to earn more money to send to his family and further his sporting career. Running was a major part of his life, of which he was very good at, with his body now at his physical peak. This has psychologically affected Jaheem as he has always been very close to his family and lived in a different cultural setting, however his self esteem and confidence has suddenly grown along with his social skills, having to interact with new people which can be seen as discontinuous. Oswalt, A (2008) states that theorists that believe in the discontinuous theory believe that people develop in stages and leap suddenly to another development milestone. This can suggest that in his early adulthood Jaheem has acquired the skill set to develop his social attitude.
Jaheem at the age he became a professional athlete.
Middle Adulthood: Forty years- Sixty five years.
As Jaheem as become older his physical abilities have slowed right down and he has become less able to be as active. Jaheems career as a professional athlete has had to end as he can no longer perform to the standard he once could. This has affected Jaheem greatly as he feels less self worth no longer being able to be as active due to early onset arthritis. As Jaheem has always been a positive person he does still do as much as possible in order to keep himself busy and keep a healthy lifestyle. He has now begun gardening with his friend. This has kept Jaheem feeling socially satisfied as he can interact with others and still enjoy participating in certain activities.
Intellectually Jaheem has always struggled and now finds it difficult to make decisions and problem solve as he’s getting older. This can cause Jaheem problems as he may become more frustrated at trivial tasks causing lower self esteem and confidence issues. In the open ended theory it suggests that each individual is different from each other as they are influenced by different factors, for example Jaheem will be decreasing his abilities much more rapidly with arthritis compared to an individual his age that took another career path. Land, S (1996) discusses how open ended theory is very reliable as it looks at an individual and their uniqueness and choices in order to see how that person is developing.
Late Adulthood: Sixty five years- Death.
In the future Jaheem is planning on being as active as possible until he no longer can be. Physically Jaheem’s body will start to decrease rapidly as his bones will become more fragile and he will lose mobility. This will affect his mental state as he has always been very active and will find it difficult to cope as he will rely on others for assistance. As Jaheem grows older he will also be losing those who have been close around him such as his wife and friends. This will be an extremely difficult time for him as he will be losing a lot of his social life as well as feeling lonely and isolated. Jaheem will live life to the best of his ability both physically and mentally until he too passes away.