How are Silicon Compounds broken down to form microchips?
Chips are made in multibillion-dollar fabrication plants called fabs. Fabs melt and refine sand to produce almost 100% pure single-crystal silicon ingots. Saws slice the ingots into wafers about as thick as a dime and several inches in diameter. The wafers are cleaned and polished, and each one is used to build multiple chips. A nonconducting layer of silicon dioxide is grown or deposited on the surface of the silicon wafer, and that layer is covered with a photosensitive chemical called a photo resist.
How is this chemical reaction used in my career?
To get silicon, the oxygen is removed by mixing it with carbon and then heating it in an electric arc furnace to temperatures beyond 3632 degrees F. At these temperatures the carbon reacts with the oxygen, becoming carbon dioxide and leaving pure silicon. That silicon is then mixed with oxygen to remove impurities such as calcium or aluminium, leaving what's known as metallurgical grade silicon. That's up to 99% pure.
Word equation: Silicon Dioxide and Carbon-------Silicon + Oxygen + Carbon Dioxide
Chemical Equation: SiO2 + C-------- Si+ O2 + CO2
Balanced Chemical Equation: 2SiO2 + C 2Si + O2+CO2
Type of Equation: Single Displacement or Decomposition
Why is this reaction needed in this career?
A microchip is something which conducts electricity, but only partially. Semiconductors are the foundation of most electronic devices as they allow the building of gates and switches in a circuit. The reaction is needed, because pure silicon conducts electricity perfectly.
What hazardous compounds in this reaction?
Silicon may cause chronic respiratory effects. Silicon dust has little adverse affect on lungs and does not appear to produce significant organic disease or toxic effects when exposures are kept beneath exposure limits.