Made up of the brain and spinal cord, the Central Nervous system serves as the control center of the body.
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The Peripheral Nervous System is made up of nerves throughout the body, which send messages to the CNS.
A part of the the Peripheral Nervous system, the Somatic N.S controls skeletal and muscular movements. The Somatic Nervous System also consists of sensory and motor nerves.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic)
The Autonomic Nervous System is involuntary, and controls and regulates bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. The ANS is made up of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems. The Sympathetic monitors Homeostasis, and controls the "rest and digest" function. The Parasympathetic is the body's "fight or flight" response, making decisions in threatening situations.
The sensory neurons in the body control nerves which respond and react to outside feelings such as pain, hot and cold.
The main, crucial function of Interneurons is to relay messages from sensory neurons, to the CNS.
Motor neurons contribute to the transmission of information to other neurons, muscles using dendrites and axons.
Is the site of the connection between motor axons and muscle fibers. The junctions main responsibility is to transmit singnals throughout the body reliably.
Acetylcholine is a chemical in the brain, which sends signals to many other cells. This mostly targets skeletal muscles and other organs.
NOREPINEPHRINE AND EPINEPHRINE
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are the hormones released by the body when faced with great stress or pressure, which control the body's fight/flight reactions.
The joining of two nerve cells to pass an electrical signal throughout the body. Synapse is based in the Nervous System.
GREY MATTER AND WHITE MATTER
White matter are areas throughout the Central Nervous System made up of axon tracts. These areas effect and modulate certain brain functions such as learning. Grey matter is also a part of the CNS, similar to White matter, but it contains far less axon tracts, and controls different things such as senses, and muscle control.
The outer-most layer of the cerebrum, this section is predominantly grey matter, and controls and effects consciousness.
The four lobes of the brain, specifically the cerebrum are the Parietal lobe, Temporal lobe, Occipital lobe, and Frontal lobe. The Parietal lobe controls and processes sensory and visual information such as language and mathematics. The Temporal lobe is mostly involved in emotions and memory. The Occipital lobe and the Frontal lobe are involved in understanding sensory messages, and cognitive skills, such as communication, respectively.
This system is located in the brain, specifically, near the Thalamus. The main involvement is with emotion, motivation, learning and memory. The lymbic system also effects systems such as the Endocrine, and Autonomic Nervous.